The field of minimally invasive neurosurgery has evolved rapidly in its indications and applications over the last few years. New, less invasive techniques with low morbidity and virtually no mortality are replacing conventional neurosurgical procedures. Providing anesthesia for these procedures differs in many ways from conventional neurosurgical operations. Anesthesiologists are faced with the perioperative requirements and risks of newly developed procedures. This review calls attention to the anesthetic issues in various minimally invasive neurosurgical procedures for cranial and spinal indications. Among the procedures specifically discussed are endoscopic third ventriculostomy, endoscopic transsphenoidal hypophysectomy, endoscopic strip craniectomy, deep brain stimulation, video-assisted thorascopic surgery, vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty, cervical discectomy and foraminectomy, and laparoscopically assisted lumbar spine surgery.