Background and Purpose: It is not known whether individuals with Parkinson disease (PD) can practice movements mentally. Before this question can be addressed, a reliable imagery assessment tool must be established. The recently developed Kinesthetic and Visual Imagery Questionnaire (KVIQ) is valid for non-disabled individuals and individuals with stroke. We have extended this work by examining the test-retest reliability and concurrent validity of the KVIQ in individuals with PD.
Methods: Eleven individuals with mild to moderate PD were assessed, while on medication, by the same examiner at 2 sessions (5–12 days apart). Test-retest reliability was measured using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs). To examine concurrent validity, KVIQ scores from the second session were compared with a gold standard, the revised Movement Imagery Questionnaire, using Spearman rank order correlation coefficients.
Results: There was no significant difference between total KVIQ scores for the test-retest sessions (P > 0.05). Overall, test-retest reliability of the KVIQ was good (ICC = 0.87), and reliability of the subscale of the KVIQ for indexing visual imagery and kinesthetic imagery was also good (ICC = 0.82 and 0.95, respectively). However, the subscale indexing axial visual imagery showed less reliability (ICC = 0.74), suggesting that individuals with PD were not as reliable when imagining axial visual movements as they were for imagining limb movements. Concurrent validity between the second session KVIQ score and the revised Movement Imagery Questionnaire score (gold standard) was excellent (rho = 0.93).
Conclusion: Our data support the conclusion that the KVIQ is a reliable and valid test for indexing mental imagery ability in individuals with PD. The KVIQ is easy to administer, and the movements (both real and imagined) required are appropriate for individuals with neuropathology. Our data suggest that the KVIQ is a good choice for clinicians who may wish to index motor imagery ability before implementing imagery as a rehabilitation intervention.
Department of Physical Therapy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia.
Corresponding: Lara A. Boyd, PT, PhD, E-mail:email@example.com
Supported by the Vancouver Coastal Health Research Institute and Foundation, Vancouver, British Columbia, and the North Growth Foundation Vancouver, British Columbia.