Skip Navigation LinksHome > February 2011 - Volume 43 - Issue 1 > Emerging Oral Therapies for Multiple Sclerosis
Journal of Neuroscience Nursing:
doi: 10.1097/JNN.0b013e31820c09e3
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Emerging Oral Therapies for Multiple Sclerosis

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GENERAL PURPOSE STATEMENT: To provide the registered professional nurse with information about emerging oral therapies for multiple sclerosis (MS).

LEARNING OBJECTIVES: After reading this article and taking this test, the reader will be able to:

1. Describe MS characteristics and traditional therapy.

2. Describe drug administration and efficacy.

3. Identify side effects and related patient education.

1. Traditional therapy for MS included medications to treat

a. heart failure.

b. cancer.

c. alopecia.

d. migraines.

2. Historically, the route of administration for MS treatment has been

a. oral.

b. sublingual.

c. intrathecal.

d. intravenous.

3. Which of the new oral therapies for MS was first to be approved?

a. laquinimod

b. terifunomide

c. fengolimod

d. BG-12

4. MS is characterized by

a. increased granulocytes.

b. decreased monocytes.

c. increased lymphocytes.

d. decreased erythrocytes.

5. MS is mainly characterized by destruction of

a. myelin.

b. mononuclear cells.

c. sarcomeres.

d. myofibrils.

6. Which cells can make antibodies to myelin?

a. erythrocytes

b. T cells

c. B cells

d. mononuclear cells

7. Which statement about cladribine therapy is true?

a. It is indicated for progressive MS.

b. It is administered once a day.

c. It demonstrates no significant change in relapse time.

d. It kills lymphocytes by damaging RNA.

8. Cited side effects of cladribine include

a. liver failure.

b. back pain.

c. nausea.

d herpes zoster.

9. Cladribine is administered

a. for a short course followed by long periods without dosing.

b. for 4-5 weeks followed by a 2-week hiatus.

c. daily, with no interruption in dosing.

d. initially at high doses, with gradual tapering.

10. Treatment with fingolimod

a. demonstrates no change in annualized relapse rate.

b. treats both progressive and relapsing MS.

c. demonstrates reduced disability via a valid disability scale.

d. causes lymphocyte death.

11. Frequent fingolimod side effects include

a. nasopharyngitis.

b. leukopenia.

c. Budd-Chiari syndrome.

d. fetal abnormalities.

12. Because of possible adverse effects, patients taking fingolimod should routinely see a(an)

a. endocrinologist.

b. dermatologist.

c. vascular surgeon.

d. nephrologist.

13. Forced vital capacity in patients on fingolimod was

a. increased.

b. unchanged.

c. slightly decreased.

d. significantly decreased.

14. One frequent side effect of fingolimod is

a. hypertension.

b. elevated creatinine.

c. influenza.

d. rash.

15. Patients on fingolimod are most likely to have a problem with

a. central vision.

b. peripheral vision.

c. retinal detachment.

d. corneal erosion.

16. Compared with placebo, treatment with laquinimod demonstrated

a. lower relapse rate.

b. slower disability progression.

c. transient increases in creatinine.

d. complaints of back pain.

17. Patients taking terifunomide demonstrated

a. worse disability scores.

b. reduced median number of active lesions.

c. higher relapse rate.

d. higher need for steroid use.

18. Patients taking BG-12 should be educated that the side effect of flushing usually

a. prompts discontinuation of the medication.

b. starts within 10 minutes of administration.

c. diminishes in 1-2 months.

d. lasts for 6 hours.

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© 2011 American Association of Neuroscience Nurses


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