Background: Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) is a type of stroke that affects women and men with a mean age of 50 years. Return to work (RTW) has been cited as a strategic goal of patients after injury; however, success rates are low in multiple studies. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate factors influencing RTW after aSAH. The study design was a cross-sectional design at 1–2 years after injury to assess work status in 134 patients who were treated for aSAH. Participants were recruited at one hospital setting via mailed invitations. They were interviewed over the telephone after consent was obtained for chart review and to participate in the study. Eligible participants were asked to complete the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire and the Functional Status Questionnaire. Data analysis was performed using univariate analysis and logistic regression with Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software. Results: There was a moderate negative correlation between illness perception and RTW. Illness perception was found to significantly predict failure to RTW, whereas marital status improved the prediction model to significantly predict successful RTW. Conclusions: This study addressed a gap in the literature regarding work status after aSAH and has provided direction for further investigation. Addressing issues surrounding patients’ perception of illness may serve as an important conduit to remove barriers to RTW. Recognition of these barriers to RTW in assessing a person’s illness perception may be the key to the development of interventions in the recovery process.