ABSTRACT: Research is inconclusive on whether gender differences exist in cognitive function in persons who sustain a mild-to-moderate traumatic brain injury (TBI). Furthermore, it is also unclear whether there is a relationship between chronic stress and cognitive function in these persons. The purpose of this integrative review is to determine whether gender differences exist in cognitive function, neurobehavioral symptoms, and chronic stress levels after a mild-to-moderate TBI. Participants (n = 72) were recruited from eight outpatient rehabilitation centers. Participants completed the demographic questions, the Immediate Postconcussion Assessment Cognitive Testing neurocognitive test battery, the Perceived Stress Scale-14, and the Neurobehavioral Functioning Inventory (NFI). Gender differences were present on verbal memory composite scores (p = .033), with women performing worse than men. There were no other between-gender differences on cognitive tasks, neurobehavioral symptoms, or chronic stress. Higher chronic stress levels result in a decrease in verbal memory (p = .015) and motor processing speed (p = .006) and slower reaction time (p = .007) for women. As male NFI cognition scores increased, motor processing speed scores decreased (p = .012) and reaction time got slower (p = .019), whereas women exhibited decreased verbal memory (p = .017) and slower reaction time (p = .034). As NFI motor symptoms increased, men exhibited decreased verbal memory (p = .005), visual memory (p = .002), and motor processing speed (p = .002) and slower reaction time (p = .002). Overall, this study only found gender differences on verbal memory composite scores, whereas the remaining cognitive tasks, neurobehavioral symptoms, and chronic stress did not indicate gender differences. Correlations between chronic stress, neurobehavioral symptoms, and cognitive function differed in both men and women with TBI. Persons in the chronic phase of recovery from a TBI may benefit from training in compensatory strategies for verbal memory deficits and stress management.
Questions or comments about this article may be directed to Tracey Covassin, PhD ATC, at firstname.lastname@example.org. She is an associate professor at the Department of Kinesiology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI.
Esther Bay, PhD RN ACNS BC, is a postdoctoral fellow at the Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI.
Funding to conduct this study was given to Esther Bay from the Michigan State University Office of the Vice President for Research.
The authors declare no conflicts of interest.