ABSTRACT: Stroke survivors are at high risk for cardiovascular mortality which can be in part mitigated by increasing physical activity. Self-efficacy for exercise is known to play a role in adoption of exercise behaviors. This study examines self-reported psychological outcomes in a group of 64 stroke survivors randomized to either a 6-month treadmill training program or a stretching program. Results indicated that, regardless of group, all study participants experienced increased self-efficacy (F = 2.95, p = .09) and outcome expectations for exercise (F = 13.23, p < 0.001) and improvements in activities of daily living as reported on the Stroke Impact Scale (F = 10.97, p = .002). No statistically significant between-group differences were noted, possibly because of the fact that specific interventions designed to enhance efficacy beliefs were not part of the study. Theoretically based interventions should be tested to clarify the role of motivation and potential influence on exercise and physical activity in the stroke survivor population.