Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) research in traumatic brain injury (TBI) populations is beginning to emerge in the literature. Because rehabilitation and reintegration issues are complex with TBI, especially with new combat veterans, it is critical that future HRQOL research be designed to consider these issues. Utilizing explicit definitions and a conceptual model of HRQOL can provide researchers with a holistic base on which to build interventions for successful patient outcomes. The conceptual model of HRQOL of C.E. Ferrans, J.J. Zerwic, J.E. Wilbur, and J.L. Larson (2005) is an exemplar model that presents clear definitions and encompasses domains of HRQOL relevant to TBI survivors and their families. This review was organized utilizing the model of HRQOL of Ferrans et al. The objective of this review was to identify gaps in current knowledge of HRQOL and TBI. These findings were then used to develop recommendations for future research with combat veterans who have sustained a TBI.