Journal of Neuropathology & Experimental Neurology:
In This Issue
Do Prions and Spiroplasma Coexist?
The author has been promoting spiroplasma involvement in transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) for 3 decades; the organism has been found in TSE in all species tested. This review is a summary of that work and offers a hypothesis for linkage of spiroplasma with the prion protein.
see page 104
Normal CSF 5-HT Levels in SIDS Patients
Previous reports identified multiple serotonergic (5-HT) abnormalities in brainstem nuclei of patients with SIDS. Here, CSF 5-HT and dopamine metabolites were measured postmortem, and no significant differences between SIDS and control cases were found. The data do, however, provide important control information regarding monoaminergic measurements in human CSF at autopsy.
see page 115
Sex Hormones and Gender Differences in Multiple Sclerosis (MS)
Female and male MS patients differ in the prevalence, courses, and types of lesions, but the mechanistic bases for these differences are not understood. Luchetti et al report gender differences in estrogen and progestogen synthesis and signaling between male and female MS lesions and normal-appearing white matter in situ. These differences may contribute to the overall differences in clinical and pathologic patterns observed.
see page 123
Differential Vulnerability of Hippocampal Subfields in Hippocampal Sclerosis (HS) in Dementia, Epilepsy, and Ischemic Injury
The term “HS” is frequently used to describe hippocampal cell loss associated with dementia (particularly frontotemporal lobar degenerations), epilepsy, and ischemia. Hatanpaa et al show that these disorders preferentially affect different segments of CA1 as well as different combinations of CA2, CA3, CA4, prosubiculum, and subiculum. These results suggest heterogeneity in the pathogenesis of HS.
see page 136
Understanding the Big Picture in Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Infection: From Enlarged Cells to Microcephalic Brains
In this multicenter collaboration, Teissier et al further investigate the pathogenesis of CMV-associated encephalopathy. They describe the neuropathologic substrates, immune responses, and cellular targets in 16 cases of congenital CMV infection of the brain, reporting that the density of infected cells and stem cell targets may be the most important considerations.
see page 143
Not Too Much Parkin and Never Mutated
Parkin has been considered to be neuroprotective in several cellular and in vivo models. Here, Van Rompuy et al show that parkin overexpression using adeno-associated viral vectors damages dopaminergic neurons in rats and that these effects are dose dependent. Moreover, the likelihood of harm is increased by T240R-parkin, which is causative of inherited parkinsonism in humans.
see page 159
© 2014 by American Association of Neuropathologists, Inc.