Skip Navigation LinksHome > July 2006 - Volume 65 - Issue 7 > Alzheimer Disease With Amygdala Lewy Bodies: A Distinct Form...
Journal of Neuropathology & Experimental Neurology:
doi: 10.1097/01.jnen.0000225908.90052.07
Original Articles

Alzheimer Disease With Amygdala Lewy Bodies: A Distinct Form of α-Synucleinopathy

Uchikado, Hirotake MD, PhD; Lin, Wen-Lang MD, PhD; DeLucia, Michael W.; Dickson, Dennis W. MD

Free Access
Article Outline
Collapse Box

Author Information

From the Departments of Pathology (Neuropathology) and Neuroscience (HU, WLL, MWDL, DWD), Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Jacksonville, Florida.

Send correspondence and reprint requests to: Dennis W. Dickson, MD, Neuropathology Laboratory, Mayo Clinic, 4500 San Pablo Road, Jacksonville, FL 32224; E-mail:

This study was supported by NIH grants P50-AG16574, P01-AG17216, P01-AG14449, P01-AG03949, P50-AG25711, and P50-NS40256; the Mayo Foundation; and State of Florida Alzheimer Disease Initiative.

Collapse Box


Lewy bodies (LBs) are α-synuclein-immunoreactive neuronal inclusions with a predilection for specific cortical and subcortical regions, including the amygdala. In this study, the presence of LBs was assessed in 347 cases of Alzheimer disease (AD). In 87 cases, LB pathology was diagnostic of brainstem (n = 3), transitional (n = 32), or diffuse (n = 52) Lewy body disease (LBD). The remaining 260 cases of AD were screened for amygdala LBs (AD/ALB) and 62 (24%) cases were found. If AD/LBD cases are included, LBs were detected in 149 (43%) cases of AD. The presence α-synuclein pathology was assessed in multiple brain regions of the 62 cases of AD/ALB and 57 randomly selected cases of AD, and only sparse α-synuclein pathology was detected in both. The burden of α-synuclein pathology in brainstem nuclei, amygdala, and neocortex was significant lower in AD/ALB than in AD/LBD. In comparison to AD/LBD, AD/ALB did not differ in age at death, disease duration, male-to-female ratio, brain weight, Braak neurofibrillary tangle stage, average senile plaque density, or apolipoprotein E ε4 allele frequency. The results suggest that AD/ALB is pathologically different from AD/LBD, suggesting that it is a neuropathologically distinct and isolated α-synucleinopathy.

Back to Top | Article Outline


Lewy body disease (LBD) is the most common pathologic substrate for the clinical syndromes of Parkinson disease (PD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) (1). It is characterized by α-synuclein-immunoreactive Lewy bodies (LBs) and Lewy neurites as well as neuronal loss and gliosis in select subcortical nuclei. LBD is considered to be the second most common neurodegenerative process after Alzheimer disease (AD). Most cases of LBD are accompanied by varying degrees of Alzheimer-type pathology, including neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) and senile plaques (SPs). In some cases, the Alzheimer-type pathology is insufficient to warrant a diagnosis of AD and is more consistent with pathologic aging (2), but in other cases, SPs and NFTs are abundant and consistent with a diagnosis of concurrent AD (3). The latter is sometimes referred to as the Lewy body variant (LBV) of AD (4).

Several recent studies using α-synuclein immunohistochemistry have drawn attention to the presence of LBs in sporadic AD (5-12). Seminal studies by Schmidt and coworkers drew attention to the pleomorphic nature of the lesions in the amygdala and the frequent co-occurrence of Lewy-like lesions in neurons that also had neurofibrillary pathology (13). Although it might be argued that this form of α-synuclein pathology is distinct from that in LBD, there is no significant difference in morphology from that seen in LBD. It is clear from these reports that the amygdala is particularly vulnerable to α-synuclein pathology, particularly in familial AD (14) and Down syndrome (15). The amygdala is also one of the regions most severely affected in DLB with severity of pathology correlating with visual hallucinations, one of the cardinal clinical features of DLB (16-18).

The amygdala has long been known to be vulnerable to Alzheimer-type pathology (19), and it has been described as one of earliest locations to develop Alzheimer pathology in Down syndrome (20). The amygdala is thought to be second only to periallocortex in NFT severity in AD (21). Neuronal loss in the amygdala ranges from 35% to 70% in AD (22). In addition, Tsuchiya et al reported that neuronal loss in the corticomedial was more severe than in the basolateral region of the amygdala with the distribution of neuronal loss in the amygdala paralleling that of NFTs (23). In contrast, the distribution of SPs did not follow that of neuronal loss (23). Severity of amygdala pathology correlates with disease duration in AD (24), and amygdala pathology has been associated with emotional and memory disturbances (25, 26).

In the present study, we screened cases of AD for α-synuclein pathology in the amygdala and identified a distinct form of α-synuclein pathology with LBs or pleomorphic neuronal inclusions and a variable number of neurites relatively confined to the amygdala, which we operationally term Alzheimer disease with amygdala LBs (AD/ALB). Cases of AD/ALB were compared with AD with varying degrees of Lewy body pathology-AD with diffuse LBD (AD/DLBD) and AD with transitional LBD (AD/TLBD)-that were collected during the same time period with respect to density and distribution of Alzheimer and α-synuclein pathology as well as demographic, genetic, and clinical features.

Back to Top | Article Outline


From 1998 to 2001, there were 347 consecutive cases of AD accessioned in the Mayo Clinic Jacksonville brain bank. Of this total, 242 cases (70%) were derived from State of Florida Alzheimer Disease Initiative, 75 cases (22%) from Mayo Clinic Jacksonville Memory Disorder Clinic, and the remaining 30 cases were from a variety of referral sources, including 15 cases (4%) from the Einstein Aging Study, 12 cases (3%) from the Mayo Clinic Movement Disorder Clinic, and 3 cases (1%) from referring pathologists. The State of Florida Alzheimer Disease Initiative is a state-supported resource to provide autopsy confirmation of dementing conditions for individuals who are seen at least once in one of 13 state-sponsored memory disorders clinics (27). It is not a standardized, prospective, or longitudinal study, and the extent of accompanying clinical information is variable from case to case depending on the referral center. Cases from the Einstein Aging Study, which is a prospective, longitudinal study, had consistent antemortem longitudinal clinical information.

The study cohort consisted of 152 men and 195 women with an age range of 57 to 102 years. All cases met pathologic criteria for AD by Khachaturian criteria (28) as well as more stringent NIA-Reagan criteria (3). They all had a Braak NFT stage of IV or greater with a median score of VI, indicative of advanced AD in almost all cases (29). Most of the cases (n = 278) were white, with a few Hispanic (n = 9) and black (n = 9). In some cases (n = 55), race was not stated.

All cases underwent a uniform neuropathologic evaluation with standardized tissue sampling and quantitative assessment of SP and NFT densities with thioflavin-S fluorescent microscopy. The SPs were assessed at ×100 and NFTs at ×400. The analysis included 5 neocortical sections and the entorhinal cortex as well as the basal nucleus of Meynert (nbM), 4 sectors of the hippocampus; and basolateral and corticomedial zones of the amygdala. Given that it is impossible to precisely define subnuclei of the amygdala without special methods (e.g. cholinesterase histochemistry) and because the anatomic boundaries are often severely distorted in AD, in the present study "corticomedial" is used to refer to the medial part of the amygdala near the cortical transitional zone and "basolateral" to refer to the region of the ventral and lateral region of the amygdala. The corticomedial region roughly corresponds to the corticomedial complex of the amygdala, which is composed of central, medial, and cortical nuclei together (30).

Of these 347 cases of AD, 87 cases had neuronal loss and gliosis with readily apparent LBs in the nbM, SN, LC, and dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMN) with hematoxylin and eosin stains. For these 87 cases, multiple cortical sections as well as the sections of the basal forebrain and brainstem were also immunostained. Based on the density and distribution of LBs, the type of LBD was classified as brainstem-predominant (BLBD), transitional (TLBD), or diffuse (DLBD) (AD/BLBD: n = 3; AD/TLBD: n = 32; AD/DLBD: n = 52). For the purposes of this study, AD cases with varying degrees cerebrovascular pathology or argyrophilic grains were included. These 3 cases of AD/BLBD were not included comparative evaluations but had typical Alzheimer-type dementia without significant psychiatric or extrapyramidal signs. The remaining 260 AD cases were operationally considered to be "pure" with respect to overt LB pathology.

For these 260 cases, a section of the basal forebrain at the level of the infundibulum, which includes the hypothalamus, substantia innominata, lentiform nucleus, and amygdala, was screened with α-synuclein immunohistochemistry. When LBs were detected in the amygdala, additional sections of brainstem (including midbrain, pons, and medulla) as well as hippocampus with entorhinal cortex (ERC), anterior cingulate gyrus (Cing), middle frontal gyrus (MF), superior temporal gyrus (ST), and inferior parietal gyrus (IP) were immunostained for α-synuclein. In 62 cases, α-synuclein pathology was detected in the amygdala, which constitutes the cohort of AD/ALB, which were studied in more detail.

Of the other remaining AD cases without amygdala LBs (n = 198), 57 cases were randomly selected, and brainstem regions of these cases were immunostained to detect inconspicuous or incidental α-synuclein pathology not associated with overt neuronal loss and gliosis or readily apparent LBs. In this group of 57 cases, we found 6 cases with sparse α-synuclein pathology, mostly in the form of pale bodies and neuritic pathology, which were not visible with routine histologic methods. Figure 1 shows an algorithm for the classification of cases and the overall study design.

Figure 1
Figure 1
Image Tools
Back to Top | Article Outline

For all regions of interest (amygdala, nbM, MF, IP, Cing, ERC, SN, LC, and DMN), 5-μm-thick paraffin sections were immunostained using a previously characterized rabbit polyclonal antibody to α-synuclein (NACP; 1:3000 [31]). The deparaffinized and rehydrated sections were pretreated with 95% formic acid for 30 minutes and then steamed in distilled water for 30 minutes. Immunohistochemistry was performed with a DAKO Autostainer (DAKO, Carpinteria, CA) using 3, 3-diaminobenzidine (DAB) as the chromogen. After immunostaining, the sections were counterstained with hematoxylin.

Results with the polyclonal antibody were compared with immunostaining with a commercial monoclonal antibody to α-synuclein (LB509; Zymed, South San Francisco, CA; 1:100) using various pretreatments. The sections were pretreated with 95% formic acid (FA) for 30 minutes or with proteinase K (Sigma, St. Louis, MO; 10 mg/mL, 1:100) for 10 minutes at 37°C. Sections were also processed according to the procedure advocated by Hamilton (11) with Sigma protease XXIV (Sigma; 0.1 mg/mL) for 10 minutes at room temperature. Protease treatment often revealed more neuritic pathology, but at the cost of tissue digestion and loss of histologic integrity. In no case did we detect α-synuclein pathology with LB509, nor with the various pretreatments with the polyclonal antibody or steam heat and formic acid, using the DAKO Envision-Plus signal amplification method.

To characterize the nature of amygdala α-synuclein pathology, a subset of cases was studied with double immunolabeling immunohistochemistry. In particular, sections were double stained for tau and α-synuclein using immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence, as described previously (32). The antibodies used were as follows: NACP, CP13 (mouse monoclonal IgG1 specific to tau phosphorylated at residue 202, 1:500; from Peter Davies, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, New York), and MC1 (monoclonal mouse IgG1 to a conformational epitope in tau in neurofibrillary lesions, 1:50; from Peter Davies, Albert Einstein College of Medicine).

Several cases were also studied with single and double immunoelectron microscopy using rabbit polyclonal antibody to α-synuclein (NACP) and mouse monoclonal antibody to tau (CP13) as previously described (33). Small pieces (1 mm3) of amygdala from formalin-fixed autopsy brain were postfixed in 4% paraformaldehyde in 100 mM phosphate buffer; dehydrated in 30%, 50%, 70%, and 90% ethanol; and embedded in LR White resin (Polysciences, Warrington, PA). Ultrathin sections collected on Formvar-coated nickel grids were incubated in primary antibodies overnight at 4°C followed by species-specific secondary antibodies conjugated with colloidal gold particles of 2 sizes (5 nm and 18 nm).

Back to Top | Article Outline
Evaluation of Alzheimer-Type Pathology

As part of the standardized neuropathologic evaluation of all AD cases, SPs and NFTs are counted with thioflavin-S fluorescent microscopy. The average SP density was determined at a ×100 magnification from the following cortical regions: MF, ST, IP as well as the primary motor and visual cortices. The average NFT density was determined in the same regions at ×400 magnification. The density of SPs and NFTs were also assessed in corticomedial and basolateral regions of the amygdala. Specific amygdala nuclei are not readily detected with routine histologic methods, particularly with fluorescent histochemistry. Nevertheless, consistent separation of nonoverlapping fields from basolateral and corticomedial regions of the amygdala was possible. A Braak NFT stage was assigned based on the distribution of NFTs observed with thioflavin-S fluorescent microscopy (29).

Back to Top | Article Outline
Determination of the α-Synuclein Score

Four areas (nbM, SN, LC, and DMN) were selected for semiquantitative evaluation of α-synuclein pathology. The α-synuclein score was assigned as follows: 0 = absent, 1 = mild, 2 = moderate, and 3 = severe. In this assessment, not only perikaryal LBs, but also intraaxonal LBs, cortical-type LBs, pleomorphic LBs, and Lewy neurites were taken into consideration.

Back to Top | Article Outline
Determination of Lewy Body Counts

Six anatomic regions, including amygdala, ERC, Cing, ST, MF, and IP, were used in the diagnostic assessment of LBD with α-synuclein immunohistochemistry. After examining the entire region of interest under low magnification, the microscopic field with the highest density of LBs was identified and the number of LBs was counted at ×200 magnification. For this evaluation, we did not take Lewy neurites into consideration and each LB had to have a visible nucleus to be counted.

Back to Top | Article Outline
APOE Genotype and Tau Haplotype Analysis

Genomic DNA extracted from frozen brain tissue was used for determining the tau haplotype and APOE genotypes according to methods described in previous reports (34, 35). APOE genotyping was available on 306 AD cases (175 women and 131 men; age range, 57-102 years; mean age, 80.4 years). The tau haplotype was available on 305 AD cases (174 women and 131 men; age range, 57-102 years; mean age, 80.4 years).

Back to Top | Article Outline
Distribution of Lewy Bodies in Alzheimer Disease With Amygdala Lewy Bodies

The distribution of LBs in AD/ALB was assessed with Parkinson disease staging scheme proposed by Braak and coworkers (36). In this evaluation, the distribution of α-synuclein-immunoreactive lesions was considered more important than the density and all types of neuronal and neuritic lesions were taken into consideration.

Back to Top | Article Outline
Clinical Features of Alzheimer Disease With Amygdala Lewy Bodies

For all cases in which detailed clinical notes were available, the medical records were evaluated to determine the presence (at any time during the disease course) of extrapyramidal symptoms (rigidity, bradykinesia, and tremor) and neuropsychiatric symptoms (hallucinations, delusions, depression, and anxiety). A comparable number of cases of AD without ALB were studied in a similar way, blinded to pathologic diagnosis.

Back to Top | Article Outline
Statistical Methods

Data were analyzed with SigmaStat 3.0 (Systat Software, Inc., Point Richmond, CA) and the significance level was set at p < 0.05. For the comparison of AD, AD/ALB, AD/TLBD, and AD/DLBD with respect to age at death, male-to-female ratio, brain weight, Braak NFT stage, disease duration, and average density of SPs and NFTs, we used Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance (ANOVA) on ranks. For the comparison of cases with respect to tau H1 haplotype, APOE ε4 carrier frequency, and clinical differences between AD and AD/ALB, either the Fisher exact or chi-squared test was performed as appropriate. AD/BLBD cases were not included in this analysis as a result of their small number. The differences between α-synuclein scores and LBs counts in the groups were examined with Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA on ranks. If there was a significant difference, Dunn's method was performed for pairwise comparisons. Spearman's rank order correlation was used to evaluate correlations between LBs in the amygdala with α-synuclein score, cortical LB counts, average density of SPs, and NFTs in the amygdala, age at death, disease duration, and clinical features.

Back to Top | Article Outline


Frequency of Alzheimer Disease With Amygdala Lewy Bodies

Of the 347 cases of AD accessioned in the study period, 87 cases (25%) were readily recognized as AD/LBD based on the presence of LBs in vulnerable brainstem nuclei. These cases were classified after immunostaining of cortical and subcortical brain regions with α-synuclein immunohistochemistry as AD/DLBD (n = 52), AD/TLBD (n = 32), and AD/BLBD (n = 3). After screening the remaining 260 cases, α-synuclein pathology was detected in the amygdala of 62 of the remaining 260 AD cases (24%). When AD/ALB and AD/LBD cases are combined, the overall frequency of amygdala LBs in AD was 43%. To determine if LBs might be detected in AD cases without ALB, a series of 57 cases were selected at random and screened for α-synuclein pathology as mentioned previously. We found inconspicuous α-synuclein pathology in 6 cases (11%). It must be emphasized that these latter cases did not have overt neuronal loss or LBs in vulnerable brainstem nuclei, except the locus ceruleus, and most of the α-synuclein pathology was in sparse neurites.

Back to Top | Article Outline
Morphology of α-Synuclein Pathology in Alzheimer Disease With Amygdala Lewy Bodies

The AD/ALB cases all had α-synuclein-positive neuronal lesions that resembled LBs or more pleomorphic cytoplasmic inclusions. The lesions had a range of morphologies, including small dense cytoplasmic spots (Fig. 2A), globose-shaped lesions (Fig. 2B) and, rarely, hyaline Lewy-like inclusions (Fig. 2C). A similar range of amygdala inclusions is present in LBD. Although not all lesions resembled classic LBs, we have operationally defined such cases as having AD/ALB. The number of amygdala LBs varied widely between cases (from one to more than 50), but all cases had neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions that were distinguished from α-synuclein-immunoreactive dystrophic neurites that are sometimes present in SPs. The highest density of amygdala LBs was in the corticomedial region of the amygdala, which is composed of the central, medial, and cortical nuclei (30). A few dystrophic neurites were sometimes detected in AD/ALB, but they were far fewer than in AD/LBD cases.

Figure 2
Figure 2
Image Tools

On a subset of AD/ALB cases, double immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescent microscopy was performed for α-synuclein and tau to characterize the lesions. Although the α-synuclein-positive Lewy-like inclusions were often found in neurons with tau-immunoreactive neurofibrillary pathology, a few LBs were found in neurons with no tau-immunoreactivity (Fig. 2D). When tau and α-synuclein were colocalized, they were either intermingled (Fig. 2E, G-I) or discrete lesions within the same neuron (Fig. 2F, J-L). The discrete inclusions most often appeared to have a central α-synuclein inclusion surrounded by tau-immunoreactive neurofibrillary pathology.

Several cases were also studied with double immunolabeling electron microscopy. The amygdala neurons showed intermingling of 2 morphologically distinct types of filaments: paired helical filaments or straight filaments that were immunolabeled for tau and granule-coated filaments immunolabeled for α-synuclein (Fig. 3). In some neurons, there was separation of the two 2 of filamentous aggregates by other cytoplasmic structures. The α-synuclein-immunoreactive neuronal lesions were morphologically similar to cortical-type LBs.

Figure 3
Figure 3
Image Tools
Back to Top | Article Outline
Demographic and Pathologic Measures in Alzheimer Disease With Amygdala Lewy Bodies

The demographics and pathologic characteristics of the 62 AD/ALB cases, as well as 198 AD, 52 AD/DLBD, 32 AD/TLBD, and 3 AD/BLBD cases, are summarized in Table 1. The 6 AD cases with inconspicuous α-synuclein pathology are not separated from the rest of the AD group. The age at death, male-to-female ratio, average Braak NFT stage, brain weight, and disease duration did not differ between the groups. The AD/DLBD group had a lower average density of NFTs than the AD, AD/ALB, and AD/TLBD groups, although there were no differences between the groups for average SP density. The AD/BLBD group was not included in this comparison as a result of the small sample size. The APOE ε4 carrier and the tau H1 haplotype frequencies did not differ between the groups.

Table 1
Table 1
Image Tools
Back to Top | Article Outline
Paucity of α-Synuclein Pathology in Subcortical Nuclei in Alzheimer Disease With Amygdala Lewy Bodies

We investigated the presence and severity of α-synuclein pathology in subcortical nuclei, including nbM, SN, LC, and DMV. A score was assessed semiquantitatively in each region based on the overall density of α-synuclein pathology, including LBs and neurites (Fig. 4). The highest α-synuclein score was in the DMN in all groups (AD/ALB 0.5 ± 0.1; AD/TLBD 2.4 ± 0.1; AD/DLBD 2.9 ± 0.05; mean ± standard error of the mean). The α-synuclein score in DMN, LC, SN, and nbM was significantly less in AD/ALB than in all of the other groups. The α-synuclein score was also significantly less in AD/TLBD than in AD/DLBD.

Figure 4
Figure 4
Image Tools
Back to Top | Article Outline
Paucity of Lewy Bodies in Cortical Areas in Alzheimer Disease With Amygdala Lewy Bodies

The density of cortical and amygdala LBs was determined with α-synuclein immunohistochemistry in AD/ALB, AD/TLBD, and AD/DLBD (Fig. 5). The highest LB density was in the amygdala for all groups and the lowest LB density was in the inferior parietal cortex. The LB density in the amygdala was significantly less in AD/ALB than in the other groups (AD/ALB 18 ± 2; AD/TLBD 29 ± 3; AD/DLBD 46 ± 4). The LB density in the amygdala tended to be greater in AD/DLBD than in AD/TLBD. Only ST had rare LBs in AD/ALB. The LB density in neocortical regions (MF and IP) was significantly greater in AD/DLBD than in both AD/TLBD and AD/ALB. The LB density in limbic cortices (ERC and Cing) and the ST gyrus was significantly greater in AD/DLBD than in both AD/TLBD and AD/ALB and significantly greater in AD/TLBD than in AD/ALB.

Figure 5
Figure 5
Image Tools
Back to Top | Article Outline
Neuropathologic Features of Alzheimer Disease With Amygdala Lewy Bodies
Distribution of Lewy Bodies in Alzheimer Disease With Amygdala Lewy Bodies

In this study of 62 cases of AD/ALB, α-synuclein immunostaining of multiple brain regions showed sparse α-synuclein pathology in SN (n = 22), LC (n = 13), DMN (n = 20), Cing (n = 13), ERC (n = 33), and ST (n = 14). Most AD/ALB cases except type 1 had sparse α-synuclein pathology in either brainstem or limbic areas. This α-synuclein pathology was not apparent with hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections (Fig. 6A, B). In contrast, in AD/DLBD, LBs and neuronal loss were readily detected in vulnerable brainstem nuclei with both hematoxylin and eosin stain and α-synuclein immunostaining (Fig. 6C, D).

Figure 6
Figure 6
Image Tools

The AD/ALB cases could be subdivided into 4 types based on the distribution of α-synuclein pathology in brainstem and limbic cortices (type 1−/−, type 2+/−, type 3−/+, and type 4+/+) (Table 2). Without exception, both type 1 and type 3 AD/ALB did not fit the Parkinson disease staging scheme proposed by Braak and coworkers because neither type had brainstem LBs (36). The distribution of α-synuclein pathology in type 2 cases is summarized in Table 3A and that of type 4 in Table 3B. Most type 2 and type 4 AD/ALB cases also failed to fit the Parkinson disease staging scheme (type 2: 80%; type 4: 85%) as a result of the fact that some anatomic regions in brainstem and basal forebrain were unaffected. If all AD/ALB cases are combined, 92% (57 of 62) of AD/ALB did not fit the Parkinson disease staging scheme. In comparison, only 6% (3 of 52) of AD/DLBD and 19% (6 of 32) of AD/TLBD did not fit the Parkinson disease staging scheme, with the brainstem region most often unaffected being the LC. These results are not entirely unexpected given that neuronal loss is severe in the LC even in AD cases without LBD. The present results demonstrate that the distribution of α-synuclein pathology in AD/ALB is different from that in LBD. Type 4 had a significantly greater amygdala LB density than type 1 (Table 2; Fig. 7), but there were no differences in amygdala LB densities between the other groups. Average SP and NFT densities did not differ between the 4 subtypes of AD/ALB.

Table 2
Table 2
Image Tools
Table 3
Table 3
Image Tools
Figure 7
Figure 7
Image Tools
Back to Top | Article Outline
Correlation Between Amygdala Lewy Bodies, α-Synuclein, and Alzheimer Disease Pathology in Alzheimer Disease With Amygdala Lewy Bodies

The relationship between amygdala LB density and various pathologic measures was assessed with Spearman rank order correlation analysis for all 62 cases of AD/ALB (Table 4). The amygdala LB density in AD/ALB correlated with the density of NFTs, but not SP, in the amygdala, particularly the density of NFTs in the corticomedial zone of the amygdala, which is also the region that consistently shows the highest density of LBs. There was no correlation of amygdala LBs with cortical SPs or NFTs. There was a correlation between amygdala LB density and LBs in ERC, but not for LBs in cingulate gyrus or for α-synuclein scores in brainstem nuclei. These results suggest that amygdala LBs in AD/ALB are more closely linked to concurrent Alzheimer pathology in the amygdala than to brainstem α-synuclein pathology.

Table 4
Table 4
Image Tools
Back to Top | Article Outline
Clinical Features of Alzheimer Disease With Amygdala Lewy Bodies

We investigated clinical features in available medical records that might be predicted to correlate with amygdala LBs such as psychiatric symptoms, and we also determined the frequency of extrapyramidal signs that might reflect pathology in brainstem nuclei vulnerable to LBs. A series of AD cases matched for age and sex, but without amygdala LBs, was included for comparison. The results are summarized in Table 5. There was no significant difference between AD/ALB and AD for extrapyramidal signs or neuropsychiatric symptoms. The initial presentation of AD/ALB was cognitive impairment (n = 24), depression (n = 8), aggression (n = 1), and delusion (n = 1). Given the lack of standardized data collection and the large amount of missing data, these results need to be interpreted with caution.

Table 5
Table 5
Image Tools
Back to Top | Article Outline


Recognition of Alzheimer Disease With Amygdala Lewy Bodies as a Distinct Type of α-Synucleinopathy

In this study, we describe a type of α-synuclein pathology that is characteristic of advanced AD and unlikely related to that which occurs in the setting of PD and DLB. It is characterized by α-synuclein-immunoreactive neuronal lesions (which resemble cortical-type LBs at the light and electron microscopic level) that are relatively restricted to the amygdala. We have operationally defined this process as AD/ALB. Whether it is related to LBD remains to be further investigated. Among 260 cases of AD that were free of LBD, we found 62 cases with AD/ALB (24%). Although some of these cases had sparse α-synuclein pathology in brainstem or limbic areas, the density and distribution of this pathology was not consistent with a diagnosis of LBD. Most previous studies of α-synuclein pathology in AD have failed to draw attention to this form of LBD, which explains some of the discrepancy between reported frequency of LBs in AD, which range from less than 15% to over 60% (5, 6, 9-12).

The terminology used for LBD in the setting of AD is varied and includes senile dementia of Lewy body type (37), Lewy body variant of AD (LBV) (4), and the common variant of DLBD (38). It seems unlikely that any of these published studies specifically addressed AD/ALB because a diagnosis of LBD would not be immediately suggested in these cases given that they have virtually no LBs and minimal or no neuronal loss in subcortical nuclei that are vulnerable to LBD such as the nbM, SN, and LC.

Back to Top | Article Outline
Frequency of α-Synuclein Pathology in Alzheimer Disease

In this study of 347 cases of AD, α-synuclein pathology was detected in 62 cases of AD/ALB and 149 cases of AD/LBD. In a random screen of 57 AD cases without amygdala LBs, approximately 10% had inconspicuous α-synuclein pathology (mostly scattered Lewy neurites) in brainstem nuclei. It remains to be seen if these cases represent so-called incidental LBD (39). Extrapolation of these findings to the entire cohort of AD cases without amygdala LBs would yield another 20 cases with at least some α-synuclein pathology for a total of 169 cases (49%). Thus, some degree of α-synuclein pathology can be expected in approximately half of AD cases. Whether it has any clinical relevance is questionable for those cases in which it appears to be characterized by sparse, mostly neuritic, α-synuclein pathology in brainstem nuclei or LBs relatively restricted to the amygdala (i.e. AD/ALB).

The frequency of α-synuclein pathology in AD has been reported to range from 20% to 60% (10, 11). The results of the present study are within this range. Arai et al found 13 of 27 (48%) sporadic AD cases had α-synuclein pathology and reported that α-synuclein pathology was seen most frequently in the amygdala (9). Hamilton et al examined 145 AD cases and found 60% with α-synuclein pathology and that the amygdala was involved in all cases (11). In these studies, cases with overt LBD were often included, making it difficult to determine the frequency of AD/ALB from published studies. One thing that is clear from these studies of AD is that the amygdala, not brainstem monoaminergic nuclei, is the most vulnerable region for α-synuclein pathology in AD.

One of the few published studies that is comparable to the present report is that of Jellinger et al who reported that 52% of AD cases (57 of 110) had LB pathology in one or more regions of the brain (10). In that study, 20% (20 of 101) of the AD cases had LBs relatively confined to the amygdala. This result is consistent with the present report, in which the frequency of AD/ALB was 24%.

As noted previously, our findings suggest that up to 50% of AD cases have some degree of α-synuclein pathology, ranging from inconspicuous brainstem neurites to widespread neocortical LBs. Similarly, the frequency of LBs has been reported to be over 60% of familial AD (14) and 50% in Down syndrome with AD pathology (15). These findings are in striking contrast to the frequency of α-synuclein pathology in tauopathies such as progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and Pick disease. Recently, we reported that the frequency of α-synuclein pathology in PSP (40) and Pick disease to be 11% and 19%, respectively. These findings suggest an interaction between α-synuclein and AD pathology rather than between α-synuclein and tau. Nevertheless, the present results indicate a stronger correlation, at least in the amygdala, between LBs and NFTs than between LBs and SPs.

Back to Top | Article Outline
Comparison of Alzheimer Disease With Amygdala Lewy Bodies and Alzheimer Disease With Lewy Body Disease

We compared α-synuclein pathology between AD/ALB and AD/LBD to determine if AD/ALB was different from AD/DLBD and AD/TLBD. As a result, both the α-synuclein score in brainstem nuclei and density of LBs in several cortical regions and the amygdala were significantly lower in AD/ALB than in AD/DLBD and AD/TLBD. These results support the notion that AD/ALB is distinct from the more widely recognized AD/LBD subtypes.

Back to Top | Article Outline
The Distribution of Lewy Bodies in Alzheimer Disease With Amygdala Lewy Bodies

In the present study, the immunohistochemical distribution of α-synuclein pathology was investigated in AD/ALB. We found sparse and inconsistent α-synuclein pathology in brainstem and limbic regions in some of the cases. Only the type that had α-synuclein pathology in both brainstem and limbic regions (type 4) was different from the rest and possibly an early stage of AD/LBD (Table 2). Interestingly, the amygdala LB density was also higher in type 4 AD/ALB than in the other types. When all types of AD/ALB are considered together, in most cases (92%), the distribution of LBs in AD/ALB did not fit the Parkinson disease staging scheme recently proposed by Braak and coworkers (36). From these findings, one might propose that α-synucleinopathy in AD/ALB starts in the amygdala and spreads to the entorhinal cortex and brainstem regions, or both, as the disease progresses. The so-called "spread" of pathology in AD/ALB is distinctly different from that described in Parkinson disease, in which α-synucleinopathy is proposed to start in the medulla (36). Thus, AD/ALB appears to show a spread from upper neuraxis to lower regions ("top-down"), whereas Parkinson disease is associated with spread from lower neuraxis to higher regions ("bottom-up").

In light of this hypothesis, it is of note that a previous study by Marui et al investigated the progression of LB pathology in the cerebrum of DLB and proposed that LB pathology began in the amygdala with subsequent spread to the limbic cortex and higher-order neocortices (17). Unfortunately, these investigators did not include examination of brainstem regions. Recently, this same group reported on AD with amygdala LBs that did not meet the proposed Parkinson disease staging scheme of Braak and coworkers (41). Because their AD cases did not include AD/LBD cases, all AD cases were thought to be AD/ALB cases. In another recent study, Saito et al speculated that α-synucleinopathy pathology associated with AD may begin in the amygdala, although the study was based on a small sample size and was thus underpowered to make conclusive statements (7). Nevertheless, our results support the speculation that AD/ALB is a distinct form of α-synucleinopathy that is seen in advanced AD.

As an aside, we noted that even among the AD/LBD cases included in this study, several did not fit the Parkinson disease staging scheme. This was most often the result of lack of α-synuclein pathology in the LC. A possible explanation for this is the fact that the LC is vulnerable to NFTs and neuronal loss in AD. When neuronal loss is severe, it may preclude detection of LBs. We have noted a similar phenomenon in the SN in PSP with concurrent LBs (40). When the neuronal loss in the SN was very severe, LB density was low or absent in this nucleus.

Back to Top | Article Outline
Correlations Between Lewy Bodies and Alzheimer Disease Pathology in Alzheimer Disease With Amygdala Lewy Bodies

Giasson et al pointed out that tau and α-synuclein may reciprocally promote aggregation in vitro (42). In transgenic models, there have been several reports of a synergistic relationship between both proteins (43). Some studies in autopsied brains also suggest an interaction between LBs and AD pathology (5, 9, 12, 13, 17, 44, 45). It remains to be seen, however, if there is a direct relationship tau and α-synuclein in AD/ALB. Given evidence that LBs frequently occur in the same neurons that contain NFTs (9, 12, 44, 45), this seems possible. Moreover, in the present study, we noted that amygdala LBs correlated with amygdala NFTs but not with LBs or SPs. The strongest correlation was for NFTs in the corticomedial region, which is the amygdala region most vulnerable to both LBs and NFTs. Moreover, some investigators have speculated that they AD-related synuclein pathology associated with neurofibrillary lesions in the amygdala is a "secondary" α-synucleinopathy (46).

Arguing against a direct interaction between tau and α-synuclein at the cellular level is evidence from cases with LBs in the setting of a 3R tauopathy (Pick disease) (unpublished data) and a 4R tauopathy (PSP) (40). These studies suggest that LBs in 3R and 4R tauopathies represent an independent disease process that is unrelated to tau pathology. The missing link in this correlation is amyloid, which is present in AD, but not in PSP or Pick disease. This might suggest that it is amyloid rather than tau pathology that leads to the increased frequency of α-synuclein pathology in AD compared with the tauopathies. Of note in this regard is the recent report by Mikolaenko et al who showed that the frequency of α-synuclein pathology increased as the density of neuritic plaques increased (5). In addition, the study by Pletnikova et al concluded that α-amyloid enhanced the development of cortical α-synuclein pathology in PD (47). Support for this hypothesis also comes from studies of transgenic mice that develop enhanced α-synuclein (or tau) pathology when they are engineered to also deposit β-amyloid (48, 49).

Although we could not find any correlation between LBs and SPs in the present study of AD/ALB, it might be related to the fact that the SP counts used in the present study may not be sensitive to amyloid burden. Future studies that more rigorously measure amyloid content with biochemical methods or image analytic methods will be necessary to explore this issue.

Back to Top | Article Outline
APOE and Tau Haplotype in Alzheimer Disease With Amygdala Lewy Bodies

Recently, Tsuang et al reported that the APOE ε4 allele was associated with the presence of concomitant LBs in AD (50). They referred to their cases as LBV of AD and did not specifically analyze that would fall under the category of AD/ALB. Therefore, the present report is the first to investigate the genetic influence, or lack thereof, of tau haplotype and APOE ε4 allele frequencies in AD/ALB. In support of the idea that AD/ALB is similar to AD, we could find no genetic differences between AD/ALB and AD.

Back to Top | Article Outline
Clinical Features of Alzheimer Disease With Amygdala Lewy Bodies

A number of clinicopathologic studies have compared clinical features between AD and AD/LBD. Lopez et al reported that AD/LBD develop extrapyramidal signs and diurnal hypersomnia earlier and have shorter time to institutionalization than AD, but there were no differences in cognitive or functional decline or survival (51). Heyman et al compared AD and LBV of AD and found LBV of AD to have a greater frequency of extrapyramidal signs (52). Serby et al demonstrated that the co-occurrence of AD and LBD is associated with a greater degree of dementia (53); however, the clinical features of LBD were masked by concurrent AD pathology (54). Because severe cognitive dysfunction and extrapyramidal signs often appear at late stages of AD, it is thought to be difficult to evaluate the clinical features of AD/LBD. In fact, recent neuropathologic criteria have adopted this approach to the diagnosis of DLB with high-likelihood diagnoses only possible in cases with minimal or no Alzheimer-type pathology in the setting of TLBD or DLBD (55).

Given that all the cases in the present study had moderate to marked Alzheimer pathology, it is perhaps not surprising that we were unable to find clinical differences between AD and AD/ALB. We were also unable to find any demographic differences between AD/ALB and AD with respect to age at death, male-to-female ratio, and disease duration. A serious limitation of the present study, however, is the retrospective nature of the cohort under investigation, most of which were derived from the State of Florida Alzheimer Disease Initiative, in which a standardized clinical protocol is not used.

Back to Top | Article Outline


In conclusion, the present study indicates that AD/ALB is a distinct form of α-synucleinopathy that occurs in the setting of advanced AD with no significant demographic or genetic differences between AD and AD/ALB. Although we were unable to find any clinical differences between AD and AD/ALB, the results need to be interpreted with caution given the retrospective nature of our study design. Future prospective studies will be needed to determine the clinical significance, if any, of AD/ALB.

Back to Top | Article Outline


The authors thank Virginia Phillips and Linda Rousseau for their histologic support and Natalie Thomas for genetic studies.

Back to Top | Article Outline


1. McKeith IG, Galasko D, Kosaka K, et al. Consensus guidelines for the clinical and pathologic diagnosis of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB): Report of the consortium on DLB international workshop. Neurology 1996;47:1113-24

2. Dickson DW, Crystal HA, Mattiace LA, et al. Identification of normal and pathological aging in prospectively studied nondemented elderly humans. Neurobiol Aging 1992;13:179-89

3. Hyman BT, Trojanowski JQ. Consensus recommendations for the postmortem diagnosis of Alzheimer disease from the National Institute on Aging and the Reagan Institute Working Group on diagnostic criteria for the neuropathological assessment of Alzheimer disease. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 1997;56:1095-97

4. Hansen L, Salmon D, Galasko D, et al. The Lewy body variant of Alzheimer's disease: a clinical and pathologic entity. Neurology 1990;40:1-8

5. Mikolaenko I, Pletnikova O, Kawas CH, et al. Alpha-synuclein lesions in normal aging, Parkinson disease, and Alzheimer disease: evidence from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA). J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 2005;64:156-62

6. Parkkinen L, Soininen H, Alafuzoff I. Regional distribution of alpha-synuclein pathology in unimpaired aging and Alzheimer disease. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 2003;62:363-67

7. Saito Y, Kawashima A, Ruberu NN, et al. Accumulation of phosphorylated alpha-synuclein in aging human brain. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 2003;62:644-54

8. Dickson DW. Alpha-synuclein and the Lewy body disorders. Curr Opin Neurol 2001;14:423-32

9. Arai Y, Yamazaki M, Mori O, et al. Alpha-synuclein-positive structures in cases with sporadic Alzheimer's disease: morphology and its relationship to tau aggregation. Brain Res 2001;888:287-96

10. Jellinger KA. Alpha-synuclein pathology in Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease brain: incidence and topographic distribution-a pilot study. Acta Neuropathol (Berl) 2003;106:191-201

11. Hamilton RL. Lewy bodies in Alzheimer's disease: a neuropathological review of 145 cases using alpha-synuclein immunohistochemistry. Brain Pathol 2000;10:378-84

12. Marui W, Iseki E, Ueda K, et al. Occurrence of human alpha-synuclein immunoreactive neurons with neurofibrillary tangle formation in the limbic areas of patients with Alzheimer's disease. J Neurol Sci 2000;174:81-84

13. Schmidt ML, Martin JA, Lee VM, Trojanowski JQ. Convergence of Lewy bodies and neurofibrillary tangles in amygdala neurons of Alzheimer's disease and Lewy body disorders. Acta Neuropathol (Berl) 1996;91:475-81

14. Lippa CF, Fujiwara H, Mann DM, et al. Lewy bodies contain altered alpha-synuclein in brains of many familial Alzheimer's disease patients with mutations in presenilin and amyloid precursor protein genes. Am J Pathol 1998;153:1365-70

15. Lippa CF, Schmidt ML, Lee VM, et al. Antibodies to alpha-synuclein detect Lewy bodies in many Down's syndrome brains with Alzheimer's disease. Ann Neurol 1999;45:353-57

16. Rezaie P, Cairns NJ, Chadwick A, et al. Lewy bodies are located preferentially in limbic areas in diffuse Lewy body disease. Neurosci Lett 1996;212:111-14

17. Marui W, Iseki E, Nakai T, et al. Progression and staging of Lewy pathology in brains from patients with dementia with Lewy bodies. J Neurol Sci 2002;195:153-59

18. Harding AJ, Broe GA, Halliday GM. Visual hallucinations in Lewy body disease relate to Lewy bodies in the temporal lobe. Brain 2002; 125:391-403

19. Hopper MW, Vogel FS. The limbic system in Alzheimer's disease. A neuropathologic investigation. Am J Pathol 1976;85:1-20

20. Mann DM, Yates PO, Marcyniuk B, et al. The topography of plaques and tangles in Down's syndrome patients of different ages. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol 1986;12:447-57

21. Arnold SE, Hyman BT, Flory J, et al. The topographical and neuroanatomical distribution of neurofibrillary tangles and neuritic plaques in the cerebral cortex of patients with Alzheimer's disease. Cereb Cortex 1991;1:103-16

22. Vereecken TH, Vogels OJ, Nieuwenhuys R. Neuron loss and shrinkage in the amygdala in Alzheimer's disease. Neurobiol Aging 1994;15:45-54

23. Tsuchiya K, Kosaka K. Neuropathological study of the amygdala in presenile Alzheimer's disease. J Neurol Sci 1990;100:165-73

24. Arriagada PV, Growdon JH, Hedley-Whyte ET, et al. Neurofibrillary tangles but not senile plaques parallel duration and severity of Alzheimer's disease. Neurology 1992;42:631-69

25. Zald DH. The human amygdala and the emotional evaluation of sensory stimuli. Brain Res Brain Res Rev 2003;41:88-123

26. Rolls E. Neurophysiology and functions of the primate amygdala. In: Aggleton JP, ed. The Amygdala. New York: Wiley-Liss, 1992:143-65

27. Barker WW, Luis CA, Kashuba A, et al. Relative frequencies of Alzheimer disease, Lewy body, vascular and frontotemporal dementia, and hippocampal sclerosis in the State of Florida Brain Bank. Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord 2002;16:203-12

28. Khachaturian ZS. Diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease. Arch Neurol 1985;42:1097-105

29. Braak H, Braak E. Neuropathological stageing of Alzheimer-related changes. Acta Neuropathol (Berl) 1991;82:239-59

30. Gloor P. The amygdala system. In: GloorP, ed. The Temporal Lobe and Limbic System. New York: Oxford University Press, 1997:591-721

31. Gwinn-Hardy K, Mehta ND, Farrer M, et al. Distinctive neuropathology revealed by alpha-synuclein antibodies in hereditary parkinsonism and dementia linked to chromosome 4p. Acta Neuropathol (Berl) 2000;99:663-72

32. Uchikado H, Delledonne A, Uitti R, Dickson DW. Coexistence of PSP and MSA: A case report and review of the literature. Acta Neuropathol (Berl) 2006;111:186-92

33. Lin WL, Lewis J, Yen SH, Hutton M, Dickson DW. Filamentous tau in oligodendrocytes and astrocytes of transgenic mice expressing the human tau isoform with the P301L mutation. Am J Pathol 2003;162:213-18

34. Crook R, Hardy J, Duff K. Single-day apolipoprotein E genotyping. J Neurosci Methods 1994;53:125-27

35. Baker M, Litvan I, Houlden H, et al. Association of an extended haplotype in the tau gene with progressive supranuclear palsy. Hum Mol Genet 1999;8:7111-15

36. Braak H, Del Tredici K, Rub U, et al. Staging of brain pathology related to sporadic Parkinson's disease. Neurobiol Aging 2003;24:197-211

37. Perry RH, Irving D, Blessed G, et al. Senile dementia of Lewy body type. A clinically and neuropathologically distinct form of Lewy body dementia in the elderly. J Neurol Sci 1990;95:119-39

38. Kosaka K. Diffuse Lewy body diseases in Japan. J Neurol 1990;237:197-204

39. GibbW R, Lees AJ. The relevance of the Lewy body to the pathogenesis of idiopathic Parkinson's disease. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1988;51:745-52

40. Uchikado H, DelleDonne A, Ahmed Z, Dickson DW. Lewy bodies in progressive supranuclear palsy represent an independent disease process. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol (in press)

41. Marui W, Iseki E, Kato M, et al. Pathological entity of dementia with Lewy bodies and its differentiation from Alzheimer's disease. Acta Neuropathol (Berl) 2004;108:121-28

42. Giasson BI, Forman MS, Higuchi M, et al. Initiation and synergistic fibrillization of tau and alpha-synuclein. Science 2003;300:636-40

43. Geddes JW. Alpha-synuclein: A potent inducer of tau pathology. Exp Neurol 2005;192:244-50

44. Iseki E, Marui W, Kosaka K, et al. Frequent coexistence of Lewy bodies and neurofibrillary tangles in the same neurons of patients with diffuse Lewy body disease. Neurosci Lett 1999;265:9-12

45. Iseki E, Takayama N, Marui W, et al. Relationship in the formation process between neurofibrillary tangles and Lewy bodies in the hippocampus of dementia with Lewy bodies brains. J Neurol Sci 2002;195:85-91

46. Saito Y, Ruberu NN, Sawabe M, et al. Lewy body-related alpha-synucleinopathy in aging. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 2004;63:742-49

47. Pletnikova O, West N, Lee MK, et al. Abeta deposition is associated with enhanced cortical alpha-synuclein lesions in Lewy body diseases. Neurobiol Aging 2005;26:1183-92

48. Masliah E, Rockenstein E, Veinbergs I, et al. Beta-amyloid peptides enhance alpha-synuclein accumulation and neuronal deficits in a transgenic mouse model linking Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2001;98:12245-50

49. Lewis J, Dickson DW, Lin WL, et al. Enhanced neurofibrillary degeneration in transgenic mice expressing mutant tau and APP. Science 2001;293:1487-91

50. Tsuang DW, Wilson RK, Lopez OL, et al. Genetic association between the APOE*4 allele and Lewy bodies in Alzheimer disease. Neurology 2005;64:509-13

51. Lopez OL, Wisniewski S, Hamilton RL, et al. Predictors of progression in patients with AD and Lewy bodies. Neurology 2000;54:1774-79

52. Heyman A, Fillenbaum GG, Gearing M, et al. Comparison of Lewy body variant of Alzheimer's disease with pure Alzheimer's disease: Consortium to establish a registry for Alzheimer's disease, part XIX. Neurology 1999;52:1839-44

53. Serby M, Brickman AM, Haroutunian V, et al. Cognitive burden and excess Lewy-body pathology in the Lewy-body variant of Alzheimer disease. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry 2003;11:371-74

54. Merdes AR, Hansen LA, Jeste DV, et al. Influence of Alzheimer pathology on clinical diagnostic accuracy in dementia with Lewy bodies. Neurology 2003;60:1586-90

55. McKeith IG, Dickson DW, Lowe J, et al. Diagnosis and management of dementia with Lewy bodies: third report of the DLB Consortium. Neurology 2005;65:1863-72

Cited By:

This article has been cited 70 time(s).

Neurobiology of Aging
MAPT H1 haplotype is associated with enhanced alpha-synuclein deposition in dementia with Lewy bodies
Colom-Cadena, M; Gelpi, E; Marti, MJ; Charif, S; Dols-Icardo, O; Blesa, R; Clarimon, J; Lleo, A
Neurobiology of Aging, 34(3): 936-942.
Parkinsonism & Related Disorders
Pathology and temporal onset of visual hallucinations, misperceptions and family misidentification distinguishes dementia with Lewy bodies from Alzheimer's disease
Ferman, TJ; Arvanitakis, Z; Fujishiro, H; Duara, R; Parfitt, F; Purdy, M; Waters, C; Barker, W; Graff-Radford, NR; Dickson, DW
Parkinsonism & Related Disorders, 19(2): 227-231.
Molecular Psychiatry
Latrepirdine stimulates autophagy and reduces accumulation of alpha-synuclein in cells and in mouse brain
Steele, JW; Ju, S; Lachenmayer, ML; Liken, J; Stock, A; Kim, SH; Delgado, LM; Alfaro, IE; Bernales, S; Verdile, G; Bharadwaj, P; Gupta, V; Barr, R; Friss, A; Dolios, G; Wang, R; Ringe, D; Protter, AA; Martins, RN; Ehrlich, ME; Yue, Z; Petsko, GA; Gandy, S
Molecular Psychiatry, 18(8): 882-888.
Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
Parkinson's Disease and Parkinsonism: Neuropathology
Dickson, DW
Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine, 2(8): -.
ARTN a009258
Journal of Alzheimers Disease
Alzheimer's Disease and the "Valley of Death": Not Enough Guidance from Human Brain Tissue?
Beach, TG
Journal of Alzheimers Disease, 33(): S219-S233.
Current Alzheimer Research
Neuropathological Correlates of Cerebral Multimorbidity
Attems, J; Jellinger, K
Current Alzheimer Research, 10(6): 569-577.

Plos One
Selective Molecular Alterations in the Autophagy Pathway in Patients with Lewy Body Disease and in Models of alpha-Synucleinopathy
Crews, L; Spencer, B; Desplats, P; Patrick, C; Paulino, A; Rockenstein, E; Hansen, L; Adame, A; Galasko, D; Masliah, E
Plos One, 5(2): -.
ARTN e9313
Brain Pathology
Proteomic identification of novel proteins in cortical Lewy bodies
Leverenz, JB; Umar, I; Wang, Q; Montine, TJ; McMillan, PJ; Tsuang, DW; Jin, JH; Pan, C; Shin, J; Zhu, D; Zhang, J
Brain Pathology, 17(2): 139-145.
Acta Neuropathologica
Prevalence and impact of vascular and Alzheimer pathologies in Lewy body disease
Jellinger, KA; Attems, J
Acta Neuropathologica, 115(4): 427-436.
Acta Neuropathologica
Protein coding of neurodegenerative dementias: the neuropathological basis of biomarker diagnostics
Kovacs, GG; Botond, G; Budka, H
Acta Neuropathologica, 119(4): 389-408.
Acta Neuropathologica
Parkinson's disease: lesions in dorsal horn layer I, involvement of parasympathetic and sympathetic pre- and postganglionic neurons
Braak, H; Sastre, M; Bohl, JRE; de Vos, RAI; Del Tredici, K
Acta Neuropathologica, 113(4): 421-429.
Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders
Mixed Brain Pathologies in Dementia: The BrainNet Europe Consortium Experience
Kovacs, GG; Alafuzoff, I; Al-Sarraj, S; Arzberger, T; Bogdanovic, N; Capellari, S; Ferrer, I; Gelpi, E; Kovari, V; Kretzschmar, H; Nagy, Z; Parchi, P; Seilhean, D; Soininen, H; Troakes, C; Budka, H
Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, 26(4): 343-350.
Acta Neuropathologica
Criteria for the neuropathological diagnosis of dementing disorders: routes out of the swamp?
Jellinger, KA
Acta Neuropathologica, 117(2): 101-110.
Plos One
Mechanisms of Hybrid Oligomer Formation in the Pathogenesis of Combined Alzheimer's and Parkinson's Diseases
Tsigelny, IF; Crews, L; Desplats, P; Shaked, GM; Sharikov, Y; Mizuno, H; Spencer, B; Rockenstein, E; Trejo, M; Platoshyn, O; Yuan, JXJ; Masliah, E
Plos One, 3(9): -.
ARTN e3135
Acta Neuropathologica
TDP-43 in differential diagnosis of motor neuron disorders
Dickson, DW; Josephs, KA; Amador-Ortiz, C
Acta Neuropathologica, 114(1): 71-79.
Acta Neuropathologica
Mutant ubiquitin and p62 immunoreactivity in cases of combined multiple system atrophy and Alzheimer's disease
Terni, B; Rey, MJ; Boluda, S; Torrejon-Escribano, B; Sabate, MP; Calopa, M; van Leeuwen, FW; Ferrer, I
Acta Neuropathologica, 113(4): 403-416.
Frontotemporal lobar degeneration and dementia with Lewy bodies: Clinicopathological issues associated with antemortem diagnosis
Yokota, O
Psychogeriatrics, 9(2): 91-102.
Acta Neuropathologica
Staging/typing of Lewy body related alpha-synuclein pathology: a study of the BrainNet Europe Consortium
Alafuzoff, I; Ince, PG; Arzberger, T; Al-Sarraj, S; Bell, J; Bodi, I; Bogdanovic, N; Bugiani, O; Ferrer, I; Gelpi, E; Gentleman, S; Giaccone, G; Ironside, JW; Kavantzas, N; King, A; Korkolopoulou, P; Kovacs, GG; Meyronet, D; Monoranu, C; Parchi, P; Parkkinen, L; Patsouris, E; Roggendorf, W; Rozemuller, A; Stadelmann-Nessler, C; Streichenberger, N; Thal, DR; Kretzschmar, H
Acta Neuropathologica, 117(6): 635-652.
Journal of Neural Transmission-Supplement
Morphological substrates of parkinsonism with and without dementia: a retrospective clinico-pathological study
Jellinger, KA
Journal of Neural Transmission-Supplement, (): 91-104.

Acta Neuropathologica
Co-localization of tau and alpha-synuclein in the olfactory bulb in Alzheimer's disease with amygdala Lewy bodies
Fujishiro, H; Tsuboi, Y; Lin, WL; Uchikado, H; Dickson, DW
Acta Neuropathologica, 116(1): 17-24.
Dementia with Lewy bodies and its differentiation from Alzheimer's disease
Ransmayr, G; Katzenschlager, R; Dal-Bianco, P; Wenning, G; Bancher, C; Jellinger, K; Schmidt, R; Poewe, W
Neuropsychiatrie, 21(2): 63-74.

Presse Medicale
Contribution of the scintigraphy for the diagnosis of the Dementia with Lewy bodies and comparison with the pathological results
Chanson, JB; Namer, IJ; Mohr, M; Vogel, T; Kiesmann, M
Presse Medicale, 37(9): 1241-1243.
Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta-Molecular Basis of Disease
Is malfunction of the ubiquitin proteasome system the primary cause of alpha-synucleinopathies and other chronic human neurodegenerative disease?
Bedford, L; Hay, D; Paine, S; Rezvani, N; Mee, M; Lowe, J; Mayer, RJ
Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta-Molecular Basis of Disease, 1782(): 683-690.
Parkinsonism & Related Disorders
Neuropathology of Parkinson's disease dementia and dementia with Lewy bodies with reference to striatal pathology
Tsuboi, Y; Uchikado, H; Dickson, DW
Parkinsonism & Related Disorders, 13(): S221-S224.

Acta Neuropathologica
Classification and basic pathology of Alzheimer disease
Duyckaerts, C; Delatour, B; Potier, MC
Acta Neuropathologica, 118(1): 5-36.
Acta Neuropathologica
Unified staging system for Lewy body disorders: correlation with nigrostriatal degeneration, cognitive impairment and motor dysfunction
Beach, TG; Adler, CH; Lue, LF; Sue, LI; Bachalakuri, J; Henry-Watson, J; Sasse, J; Boyer, S; Shirohi, S; Brooks, R; Eschbacher, J; White, CL; Akiyama, H; Caviness, J; Shill, HA; Connor, DJ; Sabbagh, MN; Walker, DG
Acta Neuropathologica, 117(6): 613-634.
Brain Pathology
Clinicopathological outline of dementia with Lewy bodies applying the revised criteria: The hisayama study
Fujimi, K; Sasaki, K; Noda, K; Wakisaka, Y; Tanizaki, Y; Matsui, Y; Sekita, A; Iida, M; Kiyohara, Y; Kanba, S; Iwaki, T
Brain Pathology, 18(3): 317-325.
Acta Neuropathologica
A critical reappraisal of current staging of Lewy-related pathology in human brain
Jellinger, KA
Acta Neuropathologica, 116(1): 1-16.
Journal of Neuroscience
Accumulation of pathological tau species and memory loss in a conditional model of tauopathy
Berger, Z; Roder, H; Hanna, A; Carlson, A; Rangachari, V; Yue, M; Wszolek, Z; Ashe, K; Knight, J; Dickson, D; Andorfer, C; Rosenberry, TL; Lewis, J; Hutton, M; Janus, C
Journal of Neuroscience, 27(): 3650-3662.
Acta Neuropathologica
TDP-43 immunoreactivity in neurodegenerative disorders: disease versus mechanism specificity
Dickson, DW
Acta Neuropathologica, 115(1): 147-149.
Movement Disorders
Cardiac sympathetic denervation correlates with clinical and pathologic stages of Parkinson's disease
Fujishiro, H; Frigerio, R; Burnett, M; Klos, KJ; Josephs, KA; DelleDonne, A; Parisi, JE; Ahlskog, JE; Dickson, DW
Movement Disorders, 23(8): 1085-1092.
Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
The dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus is not an obligatory trigger site of Parkinson's disease: a critical analysis of alpha-synuclein staging
Kalaitzakis, ME; Graeber, MB; Gentleman, SM; Pearce, RKB
Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology, 34(3): 284-295.
Movement Disorders
Progranulin gene mutation with an unusual clinical and neuropathologic presentation
Wider, C; Uitti, RJ; Wszolek, ZK; Fang, JY; Josephs, KA; Baker, MC; Rademakers, R; Hutton, ML; Dickson, DW
Movement Disorders, 23(8): 1168-1173.
Ideggyogyaszati Szemle-Clinical Neuroscience
Frequency of different forms of dementia in the Department of Neuropathology of the Hungarian National Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology during a 3-year period
Gabor, GK; Kovari, V; Nagy, Z
Ideggyogyaszati Szemle-Clinical Neuroscience, 61(): 24-32.

Acta Neuropathologica
Absence of alpha-synuclein pathology in postencephalitic parkinsonism
Jellinger, KA
Acta Neuropathologica, 118(3): 371-379.
Acta Neuropathologica
Temporal lobar predominance of TDP-43 neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions in Alzheimer disease
Hu, WT; Josephs, KA; Knopman, DS; Boeve, BF; Dickson, DW; Petersen, RC; Parisi, JE
Acta Neuropathologica, 116(2): 215-220.
Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
Parkinson's disease: a dual-hit hypothesis
Hawkes, CH; Del Tredici, K; Braak, H
Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology, 33(6): 599-614.
Journal of Anatomy
Alpha-synuclein pathology in the olfactory pathways of dementia patients
Hubbard, PS; Esir, MM; Reading, M; McShane, R; Nagy, Z
Journal of Anatomy, 211(1): 117-124.
Patterns and stages of alpha-synucleinopathy - Relevance in a population-based cohort
Zaccai, J; Brayne, C; McKeith, I; Matthews, F; Ince, PG
Neurology, 70(): 1042-1048.

Alzheimer disease: Postmortem neuropathologic correlates of antemortem H-1 MR Spectroscopy metabolite measurements
Kantarci, K; Knopman, DS; Dickson, DW; Parisi, JE; Whitwell, JL; Weigand, SD; Josephs, KA; Boeve, BF; Petersen, RC; Jack, CR
Radiology, 248(1): 210-220.

Invited Article: Nervous system pathology in sporadic Parkinson disease
Braak, H; Del Tredici, K
Neurology, 70(): 1916-1925.

Lancet Neurology
Neuropathological assessment of Parkinson's disease: refining the diagnostic criteria
Dickson, DW; Braak, H; Duda, JE; Duyckaerts, C; Gasser, T; Halliday, GM; Hardy, J; Leverenz, JB; Del Tredici, K; Wszolek, ZK; Litvan, I
Lancet Neurology, 8(): 1150-1157.

Brain Pathology
Modeling the Association between 43 Different Clinical and Pathological Variables and the Severity of Cognitive Impairment in a Large Autopsy Cohort of Elderly Persons
Nelson, PT; Abner, EL; Schmitt, FA; Kryscio, RJ; Jicha, GA; Smith, CD; Davis, DG; Poduska, JW; Patel, E; Mendiondo, MS; Markesbery, WR
Brain Pathology, 20(1): 66-79.
Revue Neurologique
Nosology of dementias: the neuropathologist's point of view
Duyckaerts, C
Revue Neurologique, 162(): 921-928.

Acta Neuropathologica
Multi-organ distribution of phosphorylated alpha-synuclein histopathology in subjects with Lewy body disorders
Beach, TG; Adler, CH; Sue, LI; Vedders, L; Lue, L; White, CL; Akiyama, H; Caviness, JN; Shill, HA; Sabbagh, MN; Walker, DG
Acta Neuropathologica, 119(6): 689-702.
Acta Neuropathologica
Applicability of current staging/categorization of alpha-synuclein pathology and their clinical relevance
Parkkinen, L; Pirttila, T; Alafuzoff, I
Acta Neuropathologica, 115(4): 399-407.
Nature Reviews Neurology
100 years of Lewy pathology
Goedert, M; Spillantini, MG; Del Tredici, K; Braak, H
Nature Reviews Neurology, 9(1): 13-24.
Movement Disorders
Analysis of Video-Polysomnographic Sleep Findings in Dementia With Lewy Bodies
Terzaghi, M; Arnaldi, D; Rizzetti, MC; Minafra, B; Cremascoli, R; Rustioni, V; Zangaglia, R; Pasotti, C; Sinforiani, E; Pacchetti, C; Manni, R
Movement Disorders, 28(): 1416-1423.
Journal of Neuropathology & Experimental Neurology
Analysis of the Adrenal Gland Is Useful for Evaluating Pathology of the Peripheral Autonomic Nervous System in Lewy Body Disease
Fukayama, M; Mizusawa, H; Murayama, S; Fumimura, Y; Ikemura, M; Saito, Y; Sengoku, R; Kanemaru, K; Sawabe, M; Arai, T; Ito, G; Iwatsubo, T
Journal of Neuropathology & Experimental Neurology, 66(5): 354-362.
PDF (434) | CrossRef
Alzheimer Disease & Associated Disorders
Early Onset Familial Alzheimer Disease With Spastic Paraparesis, Dysarthria, and Seizures and N135S Mutation in PSEN1
Rudzinski, LA; Fletcher, RM; Dickson, DW; Crook, R; Hutton, ML; Adamson, J; Graff-Radford, NR
Alzheimer Disease & Associated Disorders, 22(3): 299-307.
PDF (944) | CrossRef
Journal of Neuropathology & Experimental Neurology
Lewy Body Pathology in Normal Elderly Subjects
Markesbery, WR; Jicha, GA; Liu, H; Schmitt, FA
Journal of Neuropathology & Experimental Neurology, 68(7): 816-822.
PDF (856) | CrossRef
Journal of Neuropathology & Experimental Neurology
Validation of the Neuropathologic Criteria of the Third Consortium for Dementia With Lewy Bodies for Prospectively Diagnosed Cases
Parisi, JE; Dickson, DW; Fujishiro, H; Ferman, TJ; Boeve, BF; Smith, GE; Graff-Radford, NR; Uitti, RJ; Wszolek, ZK; Knopman, DS; Petersen, RC
Journal of Neuropathology & Experimental Neurology, 67(7): 649-656.
PDF (926) | CrossRef
Journal of Neuropathology & Experimental Neurology
Clinical, Neuropathologic, and Biochemical Profile of the Amyloid Precursor Protein I716F Mutation
Coma, M; Gómez-Isla, T; Blesa, R; Ferrer, I; Lleó, A; Guardia-Laguarta, C; Pera, M; Clarimón, J; Molinuevo, JL; Sánchez-Valle, R; Lladó, A
Journal of Neuropathology & Experimental Neurology, 69(1): 53-59.
PDF (2326) | CrossRef
Neural Regeneration Research
RNA interference blocking the apoptosis in HEK293 cells induced by overexpression of alpha-synuclein
Chen, T; Tang, BS; Liao, XP; Wen, GQ; Yan, XX; Guo, JF; Zhang, YH; Feng, OY; Long, ZG; Cao, L; Li, J
Neural Regeneration Research, 4(7): 541-546.
Rates of cerebral atrophy differ in different degenerative pathologies
Whitwell, JL; Jack, CR; Parisi, JE; Knopman, DS; Boeve, BF; Petersen, RC; Ferman, TJ; Dickson, DW; Josephs, KA
Brain, 130(): 1148-1158.
Acta Neuropathologica
Hippocampal sclerosis dementia differs from hippocampal sclerosis in frontal lobe degeneration
Amador-Ortiz, C; Ahmed, Z; Zehr, C; Dickson, DW
Acta Neuropathologica, 113(3): 245-252.
Journal of Neurology
Formation and development of Lewy pathology: a critical update
Jellinger, KA
Journal of Neurology, 256(): S270-S279.
Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders
Systematic appraisal using immunohistochemistry of brain pathology in aged and demented subjects
Aho, L; Parkkinen, L; Pirttila, T; Alafuzoff, I
Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, 25(5): 423-432.
Brain Pathology
Empiric refinement of the pathologic assessment of Lewy-related pathology in the dementia patient
Leverenz, JB; Hamilton, R; Tsuang, DW; Schantz, A; Vavrek, D; Larson, EB; Kukull, WA; Lopez, O; Galasko, D; Masliah, E; Kaye, J; Woltjer, R; Clark, C; Trojanowski, JQ; Montine, TJ
Brain Pathology, 18(2): 220-224.
Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
Brain pathology in three subjects from the same pedigree with presenilin-1 (PSEN1) P264L mutation
Martikainen, P; Pikkarainen, M; Pontynen, K; Hiltunen, M; Lehtovirta, M; Tuisku, S; Soininen, H; Alafuzoff, I
Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology, 36(1): 41-54.
Annals of Neurology
TDP-43 immunoreactivity in hippocampal sclerosis and Alzheimer's disease
Amador-Ortiz, C; Lin, WL; Ahmed, Z; Personett, D; Davies, P; Dara, R; Graff-Radford, NR; Hutton, ML; Dickson, DW
Annals of Neurology, 61(5): 435-445.
Rates of brain atrophy over time in autopsy-proven frontotemporal dementia and Alzheimer disease
Whitwell, JL; Jack, CR; Pankratz, VS; Parisi, JE; Knopman, DS; Boeve, BF; Petersen, RC; Dickson, DW; Josephs, KA
Neuroimage, 39(3): 1034-1040.

Movement Disorders
Evidence in Favor of Braak Staging of Parkinson's Disease
Dickson, DW; Uchikado, H; Fujishiro, H; Tsuboi, Y
Movement Disorders, 25(3): S78-S82.
Neurodegenerative Diseases
Neuropathological aspects of Alzheimer disease, Parkinson disease and frontotemporal dementia
Jellinger, KA
Neurodegenerative Diseases, 5(): 118-121.
Acta Neuropathologica
Tau pathology in frontotemporal lobar degeneration with C9ORF72 hexanucleotide repeat expansion
Bieniek, KF; Murray, ME; Rutherford, NJ; Castanedes-Casey, M; DeJesus-Hernandez, M; Liesinger, AM; Baker, MC; Boylan, KB; Rademakers, R; Dickson, DW
Acta Neuropathologica, 125(2): 289-302.
Phosphorylation of tau and alpha-synuclein in synaptic-enriched fractions of the frontal cortex in Alzheimer's disease, and in Parkinson's disease and related alpha-synucleinopathies
Muntane, G; Dalfo, E; Martinez, A; Ferrer, I
Neuroscience, 152(4): 913-923.
Neuroanatomy and Pathology of Sporadic Parkinson's Disease
Neuroanatomy and Pathology of Sporadic Parkinson's Disease
Neuroanatomy and Pathology of Sporadic Parkinson's Disease, 201(): 1-+.

Ubiquitinated p62-positive, TDP-43-negative inclusions in cerebellum in frontotemporal lobar degeneration with TAR DNA binding protein 43
Pikkarainen, M; Hartikainen, P; Alafuzoff, I
Neuropathology, 30(2): 197-199.
Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
Incidence and Extent of Lewy Body-Related alpha-Synucleinopathy in Aging Human Olfactory Bulb
Sengoku, R; Saito, Y; Ikemura, M; Hatsuta, H; Sakiyama, Y; Kanemaru, K; Arai, T; Sawabe, M; Tanaka, N; Mochizuki, H; Inoue, K; Murayama, S
Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology, 67(): 1072-1083.

Brain Pathology
Staging of neurofibrillary pathology in Alzheimer's disease: A study of the BrainNet Europe consortium
Alafuzoff, I; Arzberger, T; Al-Sarraj, S; Bodi, I; Bogdanovic, N; Braak, H; Bugiani, O; Del-Tredici, K; Ferrer, I; Gelpi, E; Giaccone, G; Graeber, MB; Ince, P; Kamphorst, W; King, A; Korkolopoulou, P; Kovacs, GG; Larionov, S; Meyronet, D; Monoranu, C; Parchi, P; Patsouris, E; Roggendorf, W; Seilhean, D; Tagliavini, F; Stadelmann, C; Streichenberger, N; Thal, DR; Wharton, SB; Kretzschmar, H
Brain Pathology, 18(4): 484-496.
Back to Top | Article Outline

Alzheimer disease; α-synuclein; Amygdala; Immunohistochemistry; Lewy bodies

© 2006 American Association of Neuropathologists, Inc


Search for Similar Articles
You may search for similar articles that contain these same keywords or you may modify the keyword list to augment your search.