Abstract: Rosette-forming glioneuronal tumors (RGNTs) are rare glioneuronal tumors of the fourth ventricle region that preferentially affect young adults. Despite their histologic similarity with pilocytic astrocytomas (PAs), RGNTs do not harbor KIAA1549-BRAF fusions or BRAF mutations, which represent the most common genetic alteration in PAs. Recently, mutations affecting the hotspot codons Asn546 and Lys656 of fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) have been described in PAs. They are considered to be the most frequent mechanism of mitogen-activated protein kinase activation, alternative to KIAA1549-BRAF fusion and BRAF mutations. To uncover possible molecular similarities between RGNTs and PAs, we performed a mutational study of FGFR1 in 8 RGNTs. An FGFR1 N546K mutation and an FGFR1 K656E mutation were found in the tumors of 2 patients. Notably, the patient with an FGFR1 K656E mutated RGNT had undergone a resection of a diencephalic pilocytic astrocytoma with pilomyxoid features 5 years before the discovery of the fourth ventricle tumor; the mutational analysis uncovered the presence of the same FGFR1 K656E mutation in the diencephalic tumor. These results indicate that, in addition to histologic similarities, at least a subgroup of RGNTs may show close molecular relationships with PAs. Whether FGFR1 mutated RGNTs represent a specific subset of this rare tumor entity remains to be determined.