We analyzed clinical and pathological disease in 2 peripheral myelin protein-22 (PMP22) overexpressing mouse models for 1.5years. C22 mice have 7 and C3-PMP mice have 3 to 4 copies of the human PMP22 gene. C3-PMP mice showed no overt clinical signs at 3 weeks and developed mild neuromuscular impairment; C22 mice showed signs at 3 weeks that progressed to severe impairment. Adult C3-PMP mice had very similar, stable, low nerve conduction velocities similar to adults with human Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A (CMT1A); velocities were much lower in C22 mice. Myelination was delayed, and normal myelination was not reached in either model but the degree of dysmyelination in C3-PMP mice was considerably less than that in C22 mice; myelination was stable in the adult mice. Numbers of myelinated, fibers were reduced at 3 weeks inboth models, suggesting that normal numbers of myelinated fibers are not reached during development in the models. In adult C3-PMP and wild-type mice, there was no detectable loss of myelinated fibers,whereas there was clear loss of myelinated fibers in C22 mice.In C3-PMP mice, there is a balance between myelination status and axonal function early in life, whereas in C22 mice, early reduction of axons is more severe and there is major loss of axons in adulthood. We conclude that C3-PMP mice may be an appropriate model for most CMT1A patients, whereas C22 mice may be more relevant to severely affected patients in the CMT1 spectrum.