The patient was treated with 3 cycles of cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisolone, and rituximab (CHOP-R) chemotherapy. Repeat MRI after 3 cycles of CHOP-R, approximately 2 months after initial presentation, revealed resolution of the mass (Fig. 1C). At follow-up 6 months later, the patient had a right third nerve palsy, but the remainder of her bilateral ophthalmoplegia had resolved.
Our patient demonstrated a rare presentation of IVL with sellar and bilateral cavernous sinus involvement. This precipitated the abrupt onset of bilateral ophthalmoplegia mimicking pituitary apoplexy. Our literature review revealed no previous cases of IVL involving the pituitary gland presenting with neuro-ophthalmic findings.
Arriving at a diagnosis of IVL is challenging since it is established postmortem in 53% of cases (15). Although peripheral blood smear is nondiagnostic, and CSF often does not reveal malignant cells (16), the diagnosis of IVL can sometimes be made antemortem by skin biopsy, provided the disease is suspected. The clinical presentation, laboratory results, and neuroimaging of our patient were initially consistent with apoplectic pituitary macroadenoma. Pituitary biopsy revealed areas of necrosis, consistent with pituitary apoplexy. The key pathological finding in this case, the presence of endovascular malignant lymphoid cells, was almost overlooked on the pituitary biopsy. The detection of these cells within a nasal polyp, incidentally biopsied on the transsphenoidal approach to the pituitary gland, allowed the diagnosis of intravascular large B-cell lymphoma to be made.
Leptomeningeal involvement in IVL is largely confined to areas overlying enhancing parenchymal lesions (17). Pachymeningeal involvement is a more common neuroimaging and pathological finding in IVL, resulting from lymphomatous infiltration of meningeal blood vessels causing a mix of inflammation and ischemia (18). Cranial nerve involvement, when it occurs in IVL, may be on the basis of mass effect from nearby tumor, as in our patient, or from small vessel ischemia caused by intravascular tumor infiltration (19).
There have been no previous reported cases of parasellar IVL presenting with cranial nerve findings. Schleinitz et al (20) described 2 cases of IVL causing hypopituitarism; one patient diagnosed by skin biopsy had normal-sized pituitary, and the other patient, who was diagnosed by bone marrow biopsy, had an enlarged pituitary on MRI. Kraus et al (12) reported 2 patients with hypopituitarism and a normal MRI of the pituitary. IVL patients have also been reported (14,20) with hypopituitarism and empty sella on MRI of the pituitary (14,20).
Systemic IVL can spread to the pituitary gland without mass formation and cause pituitary dysfunction (12–14). The lack of tissue-specific vascular homing receptors, CD29 and CD54, has been reported in patients with IVL and may contribute to the intravascular and disseminated distribution pattern of the neoplasm (21). In our patient, spread of IVL to the cavernous sinuses would explain her initial right third nerve palsy and Horner syndrome, followed by development of bilateral ophthalmoplegia.
Chemotherapy is the current treatment for IVL. Anthracycline-based regimens have shown clinical benefit, with CHOP being the most commonly used (22–24). A case series by Ferreri et al (1) examined 38 cases of IVL and revealed a response rate of nearly 60% and a 3-year survival of 32% after anthracycline-based chemotherapy. Several studies have demonstrated the benefit of adding rituximab, a CD20 monoclonal antibody, to anthracycline-based regimens in the treatment of IVL (3,25,26). One such study compared rituximab to placebo as an adjuvant to CHOP-based chemotherapy (3). There was no difference in the rate of treatment-related deaths, but at 18 months, the rituximab group showed higher rates of complete response, 2-year progression-free survival, and 2-year overall survival. Thus, the current recommended first-line therapy for IVL is an anthracycline-based regimen, such as CHOP, along with rituximab.
Since 35%–40% of IVL patients present with neurological symptoms, and one third of IVL relapses involve the CNS, some authors argue that first-line chemotherapy should include CNS-penetrating agents, such as methotrexate (MTX), either systemically or intrathecally (23,26–28). Other treatment modalities including autologous stem cell transplantation (1,29–35) and radiotherapy (36,37) have shown limited efficacy to date.
Our patient had a complete MRI response after 3 cycles of CHOP-R chemotherapy, with resolution of the sellar mass and no features of tumor recurrence. At 6-month follow-up, she had a residual partial right third nerve palsy, presumably on the basis of axonal damage, but the remainder of her complete bilateral ophthalmoplegia had resolved. She is to receive 3 more cycles of CHOP-R with intrathecal MTX.
1. Ferreri AJ, Campo E, Seymour JF, Willemze R, Ilariucci F, Ambrosetti A, Zucca E, Rossi G, López-Guillermo A, Pavlovsky MA, Geerts ML, Candoni A, Lestani M, Asioli S, Milani M, Piris MA, Pileri S, Facchetti F, Cavalli F, Ponzoni MInternational Extranodal Lymphoma Study Group (IELSG). . Intravascular lymphoma: clinical presentation, natural history, management and prognostic factors in a series of 38 cases, with special emphasis on the ‘cutaneous variant'. Br J Haematol. 2004;127:173–183
2. Murase T, Yamaguchi M, Suzuki R, Okamoto M, Sato Y, Tamaru J, Kojima M, Miura I, Mori N, Yoshino T, Nakamura S. Intravascular large B-cell lymphoma (IVLBCL): a clinicopathologic study of 96 cases with special reference to the immunophenotypic heterogeneity of CD5. Blood. 2007;109:478–485
3. Shimada K, Matsue K, Yamamoto K, Murase T, Ichikawa N, Okamoto M, Niitsu N, Kosugi H, Tsukamoto N, Miwa H, Asaoku H, Kikuchi A, Matsumoto M, Saburi Y, Masaki Y, Yamaguchi M, Nakamura S, Naoe T, Kinoshita T. Retrospective analysis of intravascular large B-cell lymphoma treated with rituximab-containing chemotherapy as reported by the IVL study group in Japan. J Clin Oncol. 2008;26:3189–3195
4. Estalilla OC, Koo CH, Brynes RK, Medeiros LJ. Intravascular large B-cell lymphoma. A report of five cases initially diagnosed by bone marrow biopsy. Am J Clin Pathol. 1999;112:248–255
5. Wu H, Said JW, Ames ED, Chen C, McWhorter V, Chen P, Ghali V, Pinkus GS. First reported cases of intravascular large cell lymphoma of the NK cell type: clinical, histologic, immunophenotypic, and molecular features. Am J Clin Pathol. 2005;123:603–611
6. Murase T, Nakamura S, Kawauchi K, Matsuzaki H, Sakai C, Inaba T, Nasu K, Tashiro K, Suchi T, Saito H. An Asian variant of intravascular large B-cell lymphoma: clinical, pathological and cytogenetic approaches to diffuse large B-cell lymphoma associated with haemophagocytic syndrome. Br J Haematol. 2000;111:826–834
7. Shimada K, Murase T, Matsue K, Okamoto M, Ichikawa N, Tsukamoto N, Niitsu N, Miwa H, Asaoku H, Kosugi H, Kikuchi A, Matsumoto M, Saburi Y, Masaki Y, Yamamoto K, Yamaguchi M, Nakamura S, Naoe T, Kinoshita TIVL Study Group in Japan. . Central nervous system involvement in intravascular large B-cell lymphoma: a retrospective analysis of 109 patients. Cancer Sci. 2010;101:1480–1486
8. Kojima K, Kaneda K, Yasukawa M, Tanaka K, Inoue T, Yamashita T, Dansako H, Sakugawa ST, Kozuka T, Hara M, Tanimoto M. Specificity of polymerase chain reaction-based clonality analysis of immunoglobulin heavy chain gene rearrangement for the detection of bone marrow infiltrate in B-cell lymphoma-associated haemophagocytic syndrome. Br J Haematol. 2002;119:616–621
9. Narimatsu H, Morishita Y, Saito S, Shimada K, Ozeki K, Kohno A, Kato Y, Nagasaka T. Usefulness of bone marrow aspiration for definite diagnosis of Asian variant of intravascular lymphoma: four autopsied cases. Leuk Lymphoma. 2004;45:1611–1616
10. Stroup RM, Sheibani K, Moncada A, Purdy LJ, Battifora H. Angiotropic (intravascular) large cell lymphoma: a clinicopathologic study of seven cases with unique clinical presentations. Cancer. 1990;66:1781–1788
11. Chapin JE, Davis LE, Kornfeld M, Mandler RN. Neurologic manifestations of intravascular lymphomatosis. Acta Neurol Scand. 1995;91:494–499
12. Kraus MD, Jones D, Bartlett NL. Intravascular lymphoma associated with endocrine dysfunction: a report of four cases and a review of the literature. Am J Med. 1999;107:169–176
13. Svajdler M, Lazurova I, Bohus P, Pal'ko M. Intravascular variant of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma with combined endocrine involvement. Wien Klin Wochenschr. 2006;118:422–425
14. Pekic S, Milicevic S, Colovic N, Colovic M, Popovic V. Intravascular large B-cell lymphoma as a cause of hypopituitarism: gradual and late reversal of hypopituitarism after long-term remission of lymphoma with immunochemotherapy. Endocrine. 2008;34:11–16
15. Liow K, Asmar P, Liow M, Spanaki M, Townsend JJ, Buys S, Baringer JR, Osborn A. Intravascular lymphomatosis: contribution of cerebral MRI findings to diagnosis. J Neuroimaging. 2000;10:116–118
16. Gatter KC, Warnke RAJaffe ES, Harris NL, Stein H, Vardiman JW. Intravascular large B-cell lymphoma World Health Organization Classification of Tumours. Pathology and Genetics of Tumours of Haematopoietic and Lymphoid Tissues. 2001 Lyon, Paris IARC Press:177
17. William RL, Meitzer CC, Smirniotopoulos JG, Fukui MB, Inman M. Cerebral MR imaging in intravascular lymphomatosis. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 1998;19:427–431
18. Marin-Duverneuil N, Mokhtari K, Behin A, Lafitte F, Hoang-Xuan K, Chiras J. Intravascular malignant lymphomatosis. Neuroradiology. 2002;44:749–754
19. Mizutani T. Neurological disturbances caused by intravascular lymphomatosis. Brain Nerve. 2001;63:443–449
20. Schleinitz N, Bernit E, Mazodier K, Charbonnier A, Horchowski N, Andrac-Meyer L, Veit V, Harle JR. Two cases of intravascular lymphomatosis disclosing with hypopituitarism. Haematologica. 2002;87:ECR21
21. Ponzoni M, Arrigoni G, Gould VE, Del Curto B, Maggioni M, Scapinello A, Paolino S, Cassisa A, Patriarca C. Lack of CD 29 (beta1 integrin) and CD 54 (ICAM-1) adhesion molecules in intravascular lymphomatosis. Hum Pathol. 2000;31:220–226
22. Nakahara T, Saito T, Muroi A, Sugiura Y, Ogata M, Sugiyama Y, Yamamoto T. Intravascular lymphomatosis presenting as an ascending cauda equina: conus medullaris syndrome: remission after biweekly CHOP therapy. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1999;67:403–406
23. Baumann TP, Hurwitz N, Karamitopolou-Diamantis E, Probst A, Herrmann R, Steck AJ. Diagnosis and treatment of intravascular lymphomatosis. Arch Neurol. 2000;57:374–377
24. Savarese DM, Zavarin M, Smyczynski MS, Rohrer MJ, Hutzler MJ. Superior vena cava syndrome secondary to an angiotropic large cell lymphoma. Cancer. 2000;89:2515–2520
25. Matsue K, Asada N, Takeuchi M, Yamakura M, Kimura S, Odawara J, Aoki T. A clinicopathological study of 13 cases of intravascular lymphoma: experience in a single institution over a 9-yr period. Eur J Haematol. 2008;80:236–244
26. Ferreri AJ, Dognini GP, Govi S, Crocchiolo R, Bouzani M, Bollinger CR, D'Incan M, Delaporte E, Hamadani M, Jardin F, Martusewicz-Boros M, Montanari M, Szomor A, Zucca E, Cavalli F, Ponzoni M. Can rituximab change the usually dismal prognosis of patients with intravascular large B-cell lymphoma? J Clin Oncol. 2008;26:5134–5136
27. Baehring JM, Longtine J, Hochberg FH. A new approach to the diagnosis and treatment of intravascular lymphoma. J Neurooncol. 2003;61:237–248
28. Mihaljevic B, Sternic N, Skender Gazibara M, Sretenovic A, Antic D, Terzic T, Kostic V. Intravascular large B-cell lymphoma of central nervous system—a report of two cases and literature review. Clin Neuropathol. 2010;29:233–238
29. Koizumi M, Nishimura M, Yokota A, Munekata S, Kobayashi T, Saito Y. Successful treatment of intravascular malignant lymphomatosis with high-dose chemotherapy and autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation. Bone Marrow Transplant. 2001;27:1101–1103
30. Yamaguchi M, Kimura M, Watanabe Y, Taniguchi M, Masuya M, Kageyama S, Katayama N, Ohno T, Kita K, Shiku H. Successful autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation for relapsed intravascular lymphomatosis. Bone Marrow Transplant. 2001;27:89–91
31. Rose C, Staumont D, Jouet JP. Successful autologous bone marrow transplantation in intravascular lymphomatosis. Br J Haematol. 1999;105:313–314
32. Sawamoto A, Narimatsu H, Suzuki T, Kurahashi S, Sugimoto T, Sugiura I. Long-term remission after autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation for relapsed intravascular lymphoma. Bone Marrow Transplant. 2006;37:233–234
33. Adam DN, Beleznay KM, Randhawa RS, Marton M, Zhou Y. Review of intravascular lymphoma with a report of treatment with allogenic peripheral blood stem cell transplant. Cutis. 2008;82:267–272
34. Szots M, Szomor A, Kover F, Pajor L, Komoly S, Kalman E, Gomori E, Illes Z. Intravascular lymphomatosis of the nervous system. J Neurol. 2008;255:1590–1592
35. Ponzoni M, Ferreri AJ. Intravascular lymphoma: a neoplasm of ‘homeless' lymphocytes? Hematol Oncol. 2006;24:105–112
36. DiGiuseppe JA, Nelson WG, Seifter EJ, Boitnott JK, Mann RB. Intravascular lymphomatosis: a clinicopathologic study of 10 cases and assessment of response to chemotherapy. J Clin Oncol. 1994;12:2573–2579
37. Savard M, Verreault S, Gould PV, Bernier V, Bouchard JP. Intravascular lymphoma with conus medullaris syndrome followed by encephalopathy. Can J Neurol Sci. 2008;35:366–371