Journal of Neuro-Ophthalmology:
Tinnitus in Fourth Nerve Palsy: An Indicator for an Intra-Axial Lesion
Choi, Seo Young MD; Song, Jae Jin MD; Hwang, Jeong Min MD; Kim, Ji Soo MD, PhD
Department of Neurology (SYC, JSK), Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital; Eulji University College of Medicine (SYC); and Department of Otorhinolaryngology (JJS) and Ophthalmology (JMH), Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seoul, Republic of Korea.
Supported by grant of the Korea Health 21 R&D Project, Ministry of Health & Welfare, Republic of Korea (A080750).
Address correspondence to Ji Soo Kim, MD, PhD, Department of Neurology, College of Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, 300 Gumi-dong, Bundang-gu, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do, 463-707, Korea E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Accompanying neurological symptoms and signs are diagnostic hallmarks of fourth nerve palsy (4NP) from an intra-axial lesion. Due to the proximity of the trochlear nucleus and fascicles to the inferior colliculus (IC), auditory symptoms including tinnitus may occur with an intra-axial 4NP. A 53-year-old man with hypertension and diabetes developed right 4NP with a sudden worsening of tinnitus. MRI disclosed an infarction involving the trochlear fascicle and IC in the left dorsal midbrain. Tinnitus may be a symptom indicating an intra-axial lesion causing a 4NP.
Fourth cranial nerve palsy (4NP) from intra-axial lesions usually is associated with other neurological deficits (1). Since the trochlear nucleus and fascicles are adjacent to the inferior colliculus (IC) (2,3), auditory symptoms including tinnitus may accompany an intra-axial 4NP (4). However, tinnitus has not been described as the only accompaniment of 4NP from a midbrain lesion. We describe a patient with sudden aggravation of mild tinnitus and contralesional 4NP from midbrain infarction.
A 53-year-old man with hypertension and diabetes for 12 years was referred for evaluation of binocular vertical diplopia of 1-month duration. The diplopia developed while driving a car and worsened in leftward and downward gazes. He also reported sudden aggravation of bilateral tinnitus, which had been intermittent and mild as “chirrups of a cicada” for several years, becoming louder than “airplane sounds” and persistent with the onset of diplopia. He denied headache, hearing impairment, or history of head trauma. His medications included amlodipine and metformin.
Examination revealed a right hypertropia of 5 prism-diopters (PD) in primary position, which increased in leftward (7 PD) and downward (8 PD) gazes and in right head tilt (10 PD). Abnormal torsion of the right eye was not noted on fundus photography. Pure tone audiometry showed a mild high tone sloping in both ears, consistent with presbycusis, and brain stem auditory evoked potentials (BAEP) were normal bilaterally.
Four days after onset of symptoms, brain MRI revealed an acute infarction circumscribed to the area of left fourth cranial nerve fascicle and IC (Fig. 1). MRA was normal. Antiplatelet therapy (75 mg/day clopidogrel) was begun, and the tinnitus and diplopia gradually improved over several weeks.
Our patient developed contralesional 4NP from infarction involving the midbrain tectum and aggravation of tinnitus was the only accompanying neurologic deficit. The trochlear nucleus lies dorsal to the medial longitudinal fasciculus (MLF) and just ventrolateral to the cerebral aqueduct at the level of the IC (2,3). The nerve fascicles course posteroinferiorly around the aqueduct to decussate in the anterior medullary velum (2,3). Damage to the trochlear nucleus or the proximal fascicles before their decussations gives rise to contralateral palsy (1,5,6).
Since the trochlear nucleus and fascicles are adjacent to various structures in the lower midbrain, accompanying neurological symptoms or signs are diagnostic hallmarks of an intra-axial lesion. Internuclear ophthalmoplegia, Horner syndrome, upbeat nystagmus, and sensory disturbances are frequently associated since the trochlear nucleus and fascicles are in close proximity with the ascending trigeminothalamic tract, spinothalamic tract, MLF, descending sympathetic tract, decussating fibers of the superior cerebellar peduncle, and lateral lemniscus (Fig. 2) (1,3-7). However, to the best of our knowledge, tinnitus has not been described as the only accompaniment in 4NP from an intra-axial lesion.
Our patient reported sudden worsening of preexisting tinnitus without hearing loss. Even though the mechanism of tinnitus is only partially understood (8-10), cochlear impairment is a frequent cause of tinnitus at the peripheral level (e.g., senile hearing loss) (8,10,11). Accordingly, the preexisting mild tinnitus in our patient may be ascribed to the high tone hearing loss consistent with presbycusis.
Tinnitus is also associated with dysfunction of the central auditory pathways (8,10,11). Central auditory neurons are subject to glutaminergic and GABAergic modulation, and inhibitory GABAergic synapses are affected more than excitatory glutaminergic ones in generating tinnitus (9,11). In particular, the IC is a relay nucleus for all ascending auditory information. Accordingly, impaired inhibitory processing in the IC could give rise to tinnitus or aggravate preexisting tinnitus. The IC is consisted of 3 parts: central nucleus, external nucleus, and dorsal cortex (Fig. 2) (9,12). The central nucleus of IC is connected to the ventral medial geniculate body (MGB) and the primary auditory cortex (9,12). These structures constitute the classical auditory pathway. In contrast, the nonclassical pathway consists of the dorsal cortex and external nucleus of IC, dorsal MGB, and secondary auditory cortex (9,12). This pathway has diffuse and bilateral interconnections with other neural structures and integrates other sensory information (8,9). Both the classical and nonclassical pathways may be responsible for tinnitus (8,9). However, in view of the bilateral tinnitus, and normal hearing and BAEP, our patient most likely had tinnitus from isolated damage to the nonclassical pathway.
Differentiation of 4NP from skew deviation is important in lesions involving the brain stem (1,14). Skew deviation is usually contraversive in the upper brain stem lesions, that is, the eye on the involved side is hypertropic (15), while ipsilesional eye was hypotropic in our patient. Skew deviation is also more likely to accompany contraversive ocular torsion (ocular tilt reaction) (16,17). Furthermore, results of the Parks-Bielschowsky 3-step test in our patient were consistent with a 4NP.
In conclusion, tinnitus may accompany 4NP due to an intra-axial lesion. The clinician should inquire about auditory symptoms in the evaluation of patients with vertical diplopia.
1. Lee SH,
Park SW, Kim BC, Kim MK, Cho KH, Kim JS. Isolated trochlear palsy due to midbrain stroke. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 2010;112:68-71.
2. Brazis PW.
Isolated palsies of cranial nerves III, IV, and VI. Semin Neurol. 2009;29:14-28.
3. Amedeo G,
Gallo G, Vischia F, De Lucchi R. Cocito D. Hematoma of the inferior colliculus: uncommon cause of trochlear nerve deficit and contralateral sensory hemisyndrome. Ital J Neurol Sci. 1990;11:71-74.
4. Stimmer H,
Borrmann A, Loer C, Arnold W, Rummeny EJ. Monaural tinnitus from a contralateral inferior colliculus hemorrhage. Audiol Neurotol. 2009;14:35-38.
5. Makki AA,
Newman NJ. A trochelar stroke. Neurology. 2005:65;1989.
6. Thömke F,
Ringel K. Isolated superior oblique palsies with brainstem lesions. Neurology. 1999;53:1126-1127.
7. Thurtell MJ,
Tomsak RL, Leigh RJ. Upbeat-torsional nystagmus and contralateral fourth nerve palsy due to unilateral dorsal pontomesencephalic lesion. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2009;1164:476-478.
8. Møller AR.
Tinnitus: presence and future. Prog Brain Res. 2007;166:3-16.
9. Bartels H,
Staal MJ, Albers FWJ. Tinnitus and neural plasticity of the brain. Otol Neurotol. 2007:28;178-184.
10. Han BI,
Lee HW, Kim TY, Lim JS, Shin KS. Tinnitus: characteristics, causes, mechanisms, and treatments. J Clin Neurol. 2009;5:11-19.
11. Jos JE.
Pathophysiology of tinnitus. Prog Brain Res. 2007;166:19-36.
12. Møller AR.
Hearing: Anatomy, Physiology, and Disorders of the Auditory System, 2nd edition. New York: Academic Press, 2006.
13. Musiek FE,
Charette L, Morse D, Baran JA. Central deafness associated with a midbrain lesion. J Am Acad Audiol. 2004;15:133-151.
14. Donahue SP,
Lavin PJ, Hamed LM. Tonic ocular tilt reaction simulating a superior oblique palsy: diagnostic confusion with the 3-step test. Arch Ophthalmol. 1999;117:347-352.
15. Brandt T,
Dieterich M. Vestibular syndromes in the roll plane: topographic diagnosis from brainstem to cortex. Ann Neurol. 1994;36:337-347.
16. Jeon SB,
Chung SJ, Ahn HS, Lee JH, Jung JM, Lee MC. Wall-eyed monocular internuclear ophthalmoplegia (WEMINO) with contraversive ocular tilt reaction. J Clin Neurol. 2005;1:101-103.
17. Zwergal A,
Cnyrim C, Arbusow V, Glaser M, Fesl G, Brandt T, Strupp M. Unilateral INO is associated with ocular tilt reaction in pontomesencephalic lesions: INO plus. Neurology. 2008;71:590-593.
© 2010 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.