Objective: This study aimed to provide information about the molecular epidemiology of human papillomavirus (HPV) in a group of Cuban women.
Materials and Methods: DNA from cervical samples was analyzed using a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), which detects 6 of the clinically most relevant high-risk HPV types. Furthermore, end point PCR and sequencing were performed. Three hundred twenty-two women (211 with positive and 111 with negative cytologic results) aged between 30 and 69 years were enrolled. Risk factors associated with HPV infections and premalignant lesions were also investigated.
Results: HPV DNA was detected in 76.1% (245/322) of the studied population, and 34 different genotypes were found. There was an association between HPV infection and low educational level, history of oral contraceptives, menopausal stage, as well as cigarette and/or alcohol consumption. Besides, in a multivariate analysis, previous positive Pap test result and positive colposcopy finding were both predictor variables for HPV infections and for premalignant lesions. Human papillomavirus infection was found in 94.3% of women (199/211) with positive cytologic result and in 41.4% (46/111) of those with negative results, being more likely that the first group was infected with any HPV (odds ratio = 23.43; 95% CI = 11.70–46.92; p = .000). The most common genotypes were HPV types 16, 18, 31, 58, 33, and 45. All the cases with HPV positive findings had at least 1 high-risk HPV genotype.
Conclusions: This is the first report of the molecular epidemiology of HPV in Cuban women, based on results from a DNA sequence and quantitative PCR. Most individuals were infected with high-risk HPV types. These findings support the inclusion of HPV vaccine in Cuba.
The detection of many different high-risk HPV genotypes, in Cuban women, is a warning sign, supporting the need to include the HPV vaccine.
1Sexually Transmitted Diseases Laboratory, Department of Virology, Microbiology Branch, and 2Department of Pathology, Medical Assistance Branch, Institute of Tropical Medicine “Pedro Kourí,” Autopista Novia del Mediodía, La Lisa; 3Maternity Hospital “Eusebio Hernández”; and 4Maternity Hospital “Ramón González Coro,” Havana, Cuba
Reprint requests to: Yudira Soto, Sexually Transmitted Diseases Laboratory, Department of Virology, Microbiology Branch, Institute of Tropical Medicine “Pedro Kourı`,” Autopista Novia del Mediodía, Km 6 1/2, La Lisa, Marianao 13, PO Box 601, Havana City, Cuba. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Y.S., G.T., V.K. and C.M.L. equally contributed to this article.
The authors have declared they have no conflicts of interest.
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