Objective: To determine the outcomes of women treated for vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2/3 (VaIN 2/3) with intravaginal estrogen.
Material and Methods: A retrospective chart review was performed of 106 patients with VaIN 2/3 evaluated at a single institution between 2000 and 2008. Medical records were reviewed for demographic information, risk factors, HPV status, treatment type, pathologic diagnosis, and outcome information. Patients with VaIN 1 and invasive disease at the time of initial presentation were excluded. In addition, patients who were lost to follow-up or who developed other genital tract malignancies during the study period were excluded from the final analysis.
Results: After exclusions, 83 patient records were included in the statistical analysis. The mean age at diagnosis was 54.3 years. Of these patients, 88.0% were postmenopausal and 88.0% had undergone previous hysterectomy. Moreover, 63.9% of the patients reported previous treatment for preinvasive disease (cervical, vaginal, or vulvar dysplasia). Of all the patients, 44.6% reported prior and/or current tobacco use and 48.2% tested positive for high-risk HPV types. Treatment modalities included intravaginal estrogen, CO2 laser ablation, topical 5-fluorouracil, wide local excision, loop electrosurgical excision procedure, and vaginectomy. Some patients underwent more than 1 treatment modality. Of those patients treated with intravaginal estrogen alone (n = 40), 90.0% had regression or cure of high grade disease. Of those patients treated with intravaginal estrogen and 1 or more other treatment modalities (n = 32), 81.3% experienced regression or cure. In contrast, 71.4% of patients undergoing treatment without intravaginal estrogen experienced regression or cure of high-grade disease. Conditions of 2 patients progressed to invasive vaginal carcinoma during the study period. The mean length of follow-up for all patients was 47.6 months.
Conclusions: This cohort of women with VaIN 2/3 further delineates the demographic and clinical risk factors associated with VaIN 2/3. High rates of regression and cure were found in patients treated with intravaginal estrogen, whether alone or in combination with other treatment modalities. Treatment of VaIN 2/3 with intravaginal estrogen therapy offers an alternative to standard therapies with a success rate that is comparable to that previously reported with other more potentially morbid therapies.