Introduction: Primary tuberculosis of the cervix is extremely rare, with only 20 cases reported in the English literature since 1949. Here we report the 21st case—an Italian woman with no risk factors.
Case: A 50-year-old Italian nulliparous woman was referred to our gynecology unit for vaginal discharge. Her past history was negative. Colposcopy revealed an ulcerated lesion raising the suspicion of cervical cancer. A biopsy revealed a tuberculosis granuloma, and acid-fast bacillus was identified with Ziehl-Neelsen stain. As no other site of tuberculosis was found, primary cervical tuberculosis was diagnosed.
Conclusions: Although rare in industrialized countries, cervical tuberculosis may affect even women without risk factors. It should thus be taken into account in the differential diagnosis of cervical cancer.