Skip Navigation LinksHome > January 2014 - Volume 18 - Issue 1 > Vulvovaginal Candidiasis as a Chronic Disease: Diagnostic C...
Journal of Lower Genital Tract Disease:
doi: 10.1097/LGT.0b013e318287aced
Original Articles

Vulvovaginal Candidiasis as a Chronic Disease: Diagnostic Criteria and Definition

Hong, Esther BSc, MBBS1; Dixit, Shreya B Med Sci, MBBS(Hons)2; Fidel, Paul L. PhD3; Bradford, Jennifer MBBS, FRANZCOG4; Fischer, Gayle MBBS(Hons), FACD1

Collapse Box


Objective: Although recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis is defined as 4 or more discrete attacks of vulvovaginal candidiasis per year, there is no diagnostic nomenclature or definition for the many women who are chronically symptomatic. This study aims to establish and propose a definition and a set of diagnostic criteria, which would enable clinicians to promptly identify and treat women with chronic vulvovaginal candidiasis (CVVC).

Design: Prospective cohort study.

Setting: Public and private vulvar dermatology outpatient clinics in Sydney, Australia.

Participants: Data were obtained prospectively from 50 women with presumptive CVVC and 42 controls. Historical and clinical features of CVVC identified by expert consensus were compared between the 2 groups. Diagnostic criteria were then prospectively applied to a further 163 patients to verify their accuracy.

Outcome Measures: Signs and symptoms diagnostic of CVVC.

Results: The following characteristics were found to be significantly more common in women with CVVC compared to controls (p ≤ .001): a history of positive vaginal Candida swab, discharge, dyspareunia, soreness, swelling, cyclicity, and exacerbation of symptoms with antibiotics.

Conclusions: We propose that CVVC can be confidently diagnosed using the major criteria of a chronic nonspecific and nonerosive vulvovaginitis that includes at least 5 or more properties from the following criteria: soreness, dyspareunia, positive vaginal swab either at presentation or in the past, previous response to antifungal medication, exacerbation with antibiotics, cyclicity, swelling, and discharge. This condition responds reliably to oral antifungal medication.

Copyright © 2014 by the American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology


Article Tools


Article Level Metrics

Search for Similar Articles
You may search for similar articles that contain these same keywords or you may modify the keyword list to augment your search.