Objective: To evaluate the recurrence rate after a single treatment of vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) with CO2 laser vaporization.
Materials and Methods: Fifty women with usual-type or differentiated VIN (grades 2 and 3) treated with CO2 laser vaporization or surgery excision (cold knife or CO2 laser) were retrospectively evaluated.
Results: Of the 50 patients, 41 (82.0%) had usual-type VIN and 9 (18.0%) had differentiated VIN. Moreover, 24 (48.0%) were treated with surgery excision and 26 (52.0%) underwent CO2 laser vaporization. Laser-treated patients were significantly younger (p < .01) with more multifocal (p < .05) and multicentric lesions (p < .01) than in the surgery group. Recurrence-free survival (RFS) rates at 1 year were 91.0% for the surgery and 65.2% for the laser vaporization groups (p < .01). At 5 years, RFS rates were unchanged for the surgery group and dropped to 51.3% (p < .01) for the laser group. On the univariate analysis, current smoker (p = .03), multicentric VIN (p = .02), and laser vaporization treatment (p < .01) had a statistically significant impact on RFS. One patient progressed to invasive cancer (2%).
Conclusions: The recurrence rate after CO2 laser vaporization requires regular, close, and extended monitoring.