Objectives: Cervical adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) is the precursor to adenocarcinoma, and early management will often prevent the occurrence of invasive adenocarcinoma. Conservative treatment with conization has been proposed for the initial treatment for cervical AIS. To evaluate the risk of residual/recurrent disease after conization, we investigated the long-term follow-up results for patients with cervical AIS treated by conization.
Materials and Methods: One hundred thirty-six patients with a biopsy diagnosis of cervical AIS followed by conization were followed up with cytologic, histologic, and human papillomavirus testing.
Results: The rate of residual AIS in the following hysterectomy was significantly increased in patients with positive margins on the conization (48.6%, 17/35) compared to patients with negative margins (0/30). No significant disease was identified in patients treated by hysterectomy as primary treatment. More importantly, only 2 patients with conization as primary management had adenocarcinoma or focal AIS, respectively, during a long-term follow-up period (mean, 45 mo). However, one of them had positive margin on the conization and did not proceed to further treatment. The other one had negative margin on the conization but only had focal AIS on the hysterectomy. Human papillomavirus-positive rate showed no significant difference between patients treated by conization and patients treated by hysterectomy during the long-term follow-up.
Conclusions: Therefore, if a negative resection margin is achieved, conservative management with conization and careful surveillance is suitable for patients with cervical AIS and desire for future childbearing.