Objective: This study aimed to identify the surgical-pathologic risk factors and immunohistochemical markers of pelvic lymph node metastasis in stage IB1 cervical cancer.
Materials and Methods: A retrospective review of patients with stage IB1 cervical cancer who underwent radical abdominal hysterectomy, lymph node dissection, and immunohistochemical staining for p53, bcl-2, and Ki-67 was performed.
Results: A total of 29 patients with complete clinical data and pathology tissue blocks are the subjects of this study. Of these patients, 20 (69%) had squamous cell carcinoma, 8 (28%) had adenocarcinoma, and 1 (3%) adenosquamous carcinoma. The median tumor diameter as measured in the pathology laboratory was 2 cm. The median number of lymph nodes removed was 24. Four (14%) patients had positive lymph nodes. Lymphovascular invasion was noted in 10 (34%). None of the 19 patients without lymphovascular invasion had lymph node involvement. Of 29 patients, 2 (7%) had parametrial involvement. There was a statistically significant correlation between tumor diameter and depth of invasion (r = 0.43, p = .02), and between lymphovascular invasion and positive lymph nodes (r = 0.55, p = .0019). The Ki-67 immunostaining index was higher for patients with lymphovascular invasion and/or positive lymph nodes (p = .008 and p = .028, respectively). There was no association between p53 or bcl-2 expression and lymphovascular invasion or lymph node metastasis.
Conclusions: Lymph node metastasis (14 %) and parametrial involvement (7%) occurred only in patients with lymphovascular invasion and/or large tumor size. The Ki-67 staining index is associated with lymphovascular invasion and lymph node metastasis.