Background: It has been found that the expression of fatty acid-binding protein 2 messenger RNA is under dietary control.
The aim of our study was to investigate the influence of Thr54 polymorphism in the FABP2 gene on weight loss and secondarily in cardiovascular risk factors and serum adipokine after an enriched polyunsaturated fat hypocaloric diet in obese patients.
Design: A sample of 111 obese patients was analyzed. The enriched polyunsaturated fat hypocaloric diet during 3 months’ intervention consisted of 1459 kcal, 45.7% carbohydrates, 34.4% lipids, and 19.9% proteins. The distribution of fats was as follows: 21.8% saturated fats, 55.5% monounsaturated fats, and 22.7% polyunsaturated fats. Level of significance was P < 0.05.
Results: In Ala54Ala genotype, body mass index (−1.6 ± 1.5 kg/m2), weight (−3.2 ± 3.3 kg), fat mass (−3.1 ± 3.5 kg), and waist circumference (−3.3 ± 2.1 cm) decreased. In carriers of the Thr54 allele, body mass index (−1.9 ± 1.6 kg/m2), weight (− 4.7 ± 1.4 kg), and waist circumference (−3.9 ± 3.7 cm) decreased. These changes were significantly higher in the carriers of the Thr54 allele than noncarriers. Only in the carriers of Thr54 allele, total cholesterol levels (−11.4 ± 20.6 mg/dl), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (−5.4 ± 10.6 mg/dL), insulin (−2.6 ± 3.4 MUI/L), and the level of homeostasis model assessment for insulin sensitivity (−0.9 ± 1.7 U) decreased.
Conclusion: Carriers of Thr54 allele have a better metabolic response than obese carriers with Ala54Ala genotype, with a decrease of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, insulin levels, leptin levels, and homeostasis model assessment for insulin sensitivity.