Introduction: Placental protein 13 (PP13) is a protein expressed only in the placenta. It is involved in gluing the placenta to the uterus and remodeling the maternal arteries to expand them. Women who subsequently develop preterm preeclampsia have low first trimester maternal serum.
Aim of Work: The aim of this work was to assess the value of PP13 as an early marker for screening of preeclampsia and to correlate it with the PP13 messenger RNA (mRNA).
Patients and Methods: As a part of the Antenatal Screening Project, 100 women in the first trimester of pregnancy were selected and subdivided into 2 groups: 50 women who developed preeclampsia in their third trimester (patient group) and 50 women who completed normal uncomplicated pregnancy until full term (control group). Placental protein 13 level was measured using the commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit and PP13 mRNA was tested using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction.
Results: The maternal serum PP13 level in the preeclamptic group was (157.9 ± 45.5 pg/mL), which is significantly lower than that of the control group (225.3 ± 67.3 pg/mL), with highly statistically significant difference (P < 0.0001). The frequency of maternal PP13 mRNA expression was lower in the preeclamptic group (28%) compared to that in the control group (76%), with highly statistically significant difference (P < 0.0001).
Conclusion: Combined serum PP13 level assay and PP13 mRNA expression are reliable markers for early detection of preeclampsia, and we recommend doing it as a routine investigation during the first trimester.