Background: A recent study showed that periostin (PN) induced reentry of differentiated cardiomyocytes into the cell cycle and improved heart function after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). This study sought to investigate whether PN levels increase after AMI and whether they provide prognostic value.
Methods and Results: We recruited 123 patients: 45 with AMI, 45 with stable coronary artery disease (CAD), and 33 healthy controls (CON). Blood PN and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-pro-BNP) levels were measured. Echocardiography was repeated 3 months after AMI. In the AMI group, the PN levels 1.3 ± 1.2 days after AMI were significantly lower than those in the CAD and CON groups (175 ± 60, 245 ± 68, and 232 ± 63 ng/mL, respectively, P = 0.001). The NT-pro-BNP levels were significantly higher in the AMI group, compared to the CON and CAD groups (10.07 ± 28.2 [median, 0.70] vs 0.08 ± 0.06 [median, 0.05] and 1.1 ± 4.2 [median, 0.09] ng/mL, respectively; P = 0.02). The PN levels further decreased 8 ± 2 days after AMI (from 175 ± 60 to 143 ± 57 ng/mL; P = 0.003). However, NT-pro-BNP levels did not significantly change. With respect to the echocardiographic parameters 3 months after AMI, the PN levels measured before discharge were negatively associated with the left ventricular ejection fraction (rs = −0.50; P = 0.001), end diastolic (rs = 0.42; P = 0.009) and systolic (rs = 0.46; P = 0.004) diameters. The NT-pro-BNP levels were not significantly correlated with these parameters.
Conclusion: Acute myocardial infarction is associated with a decrease in blood PN levels, and PN concentrations predict cardiac function 3 months after AMI.