Background: Gouty arthritis is increasing in prevalence in men and women, particularly in older age groups.
Methods: A PubMed search was conducted to identify common comorbidities associated with gouty arthritis, their impact on quality of life, and strategies to manage gouty arthritis and its associated comorbidities.
Results: Gouty arthritis is associated with numerous comorbidities that are increasing in prevalence (chronic kidney disease [CKD], hypertension, obesity, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease) and that negatively impact long-term prognosis and quality of life. Therefore, certain considerations and precautions are necessary when treating gouty arthritis in these patients. For example, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs can cause acute renal toxicity or worsen CKD and should be avoided in this population. Dosage adjustments are recommended when using colchicine and urate-lowering therapy in patients with CKD, which may limit efficacy. Febuxostat may be used in patients with mild to moderate renal impairment, but insufficient information is available for use in patients with creatinine clearance of less than 30 mL/min. Numerous drug-drug interactions in patients with gouty arthritis and comorbidities may alter serum uric acid levels. Several interleukin 1β inhibitors, which target the underlying inflammatory mechanism of gouty arthritis and many of its comorbidities, are in development and may provide an option for patients not adequately managed with other treatments.
Conclusions: Gouty arthritis is associated with renal, metabolic, and cardiovascular comorbidities that negatively impact overall health. The management of gouty arthritis in the presence of comorbidities is particularly challenging because of contraindications, the need for dosage adjustments, and polypharmacy.