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Journal of Hypertension:
doi: 10.1097/HJH.0000000000000146
Reviews

Hypertension in India: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prevalence, awareness, and control of hypertension

Anchala, Raghupathya,b; Kannuri, Nanda K.b; Pant, Hirab; Khan, Hassana; Franco, Oscar H.c; Di Angelantonio, Emanuelea; Prabhakaran, Dorairajd

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Abstract

Background:

A region-specific (urban and rural parts of north, east, west, and south India) systematic review and meta-analysis of the prevalence, awareness, and control of hypertension among Indian patients have not been done before.

Methods:

Medline, Web of Science, and Scopus databases from 1950 to 30 April 2013 were searched for ‘prevalence, burden, awareness, and control of blood pressure (BP) or hypertension (≥140 SBP and or ≥90 DBP) among Indian adults’ (≥18 years). Of the total 3047 articles, 142 were included.

Results:

Overall prevalence for hypertension in India was 29.8% (95% confidence interval: 26.7–33.0). Significant differences in hypertension prevalence were noted between rural and urban parts [27.6% (23.2–32.0) and 33.8% (29.7–37.8); P = 0.05]. Regional estimates for the prevalence of hypertension were as follows: 14.5% (13.3–15.7), 31.7% (30.2–33.3), 18.1% (16.9–19.2), and 21.1% (20.1–22.0) for rural north, east, west, and south India; and 28.8% (26.9–30.8), 34.5% (32.6–36.5), 35.8% (35.2–36.5), and 31.8% (30.4–33.1) for urban north, east, west, and south India, respectively. Overall estimates for the prevalence of awareness, treatment, and control of BP were 25.3% (21.4–29.3), 25.1% (17.0–33.1), and 10.7% (6.5–15.0) for rural Indians; and 42.0% (35.2–48.9), 37.6% (24.0–51.2), and 20.2% (11.6–28.7) for urban Indians.

Conclusion:

About 33% urban and 25% rural Indians are hypertensive. Of these, 25% rural and 42% urban Indians are aware of their hypertensive status. Only 25% rural and 38% of urban Indians are being treated for hypertension. One-tenth of rural and one-fifth of urban Indian hypertensive population have their BP under control.

This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivitives 3.0 License, where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0.

© 2014 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

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