Objectives: Rapid growth velocity in early life may be a risk factor for obesity, elevated blood pressure, and adverse metabolic markers in childhood, but results are not consistent. We analysed the association between peak growth velocity during the first 2 years of life and blood pressure, fasting glucose and insulin at 10 years of age.
Methods: A prospective German birth cohort (LISAplus) provided data on growth, blood pressure, glucose, and insulin for 1127 children up to the age of 10 years. All children had a birth weight of at least 2500 g. Growth was modelled using nonlinear mixed-effect Reed1 models. Associations between peak growth velocities and metabolic outcomes were calculated with linear regression models. Potential confounders were sequentially adjusted for.
Results: Higher peak height velocity (PHV) and peak weight velocity (PWV) in infancy were associated with significant increase in systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) in children at 10 years. For each 10.2 cm/year [2 standard deviation (SD)] increase in PHV, SBP increased by 2.94 mmHg [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.34, 4.54] after adjustment for potential confounders including birth weight and body mass index. A 5.1 kg/year (2 SD) higher PWV was associated with a 2.13 mmHg (95% CI 0.51, 3.74) increase in SBP and a 1.91 mmHg (95% CI 0.52, 3.30) increase in DBP. No consistent associations were found between PHV or PWV and the Homeostatic Model Assessment for Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) index after multiple adjustments.
Conclusions: Blood pressure and metabolic outcomes at school age may be associated with growth patterns in early life, regardless of relative weight during school age.
aHelmholtz Zentrum Munich, Center for Environment and Health, Institute of Epidemiology I, Neuherberg
bUniversity Hospital Leipzig, Faculty of Medicine, Institute of Laboratory Medicine, Clinical Chemistry, and Molecular Diagnostics, Leipzig
cIUF Leibniz Research Institute for Environmental Medicine and Medical Faculty, Heinrich Heine University of Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf
dUniversity of Leipzig, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Environmental Medicine and Hygiene, Leipzig
eMarien Hospital Wesel, Department of Paediatrics, Wesel, Germany
fMedical Practice for Paediatrics, Bad Honnef
gInstitute of Medical Informatics, Biometry and Epidemiology, Chair of Epidemiology, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Munich
hUniversity Hospital Grosshadern, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Munich, Germany
Correspondence to Dr Joachim Heinrich, Helmholtz Zentrum München, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Institute of Epidemiology, Ingolstädter Landstraße 1, 85764 Neuherberg, Germany.Tel: +49 89 3187 4150; fax: +49 89 3187 3380; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abbreviations: HOMA-IR, Homeostasic Model Assessment for Insulin Resistance; PHV, peak height velocity; PWV, peak weight velocity
Received 27 July, 2011
Revised 21 December, 2011
Accepted 21 February, 2012
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