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Journal of Hypertension:
doi: 10.1097/HJH.0b013e3283220ecd
Original papers: Heart

Left ventricular hypertrophy and geometry in hypertensive patients with chronic kidney disease

Nardi, Emilio; Palermo, Alessandro; Mulè, Giuseppe; Cusimano, Paola; Cottone, Santina; Cerasola, Giovanni

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Abstract

Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and left ventricular geometry in a group of 293 hypertensive patients with stage 2–5 chronic kidney disease (CKD), compared with 289 essential hypertensive patients with normal renal function.

Methods: All patients underwent echocardiographic examination. Patients on stage 1 CKD, dialysis treatment, or with cardiovascular diseases were excluded.

Results: LVH was observed in 47.1% of patients with CKD and in 31.14% of essential hypertensive patients (P < 0.0001). We found increasingly higher left ventricular diameters, thicknesses, and mass from stage 2 to 5 CKD. Distribution of concentric and eccentric LVH was not different between the two groups. However, after introducing mixed hypertrophy, the difference between the two groups group was disclosed (P = 0.027). The prevalence of inappropriate left ventricular mass was 52.6% in patients with CKD vs. 30.5% in essential hypertensive patients (P < 0.0001). Multiple regression analysis confirmed that the association between renal function and left ventricular mass (β −0.287; P < 0.0001) was independent by potential confounders. From stage 4 to 5, the significant increase of left ventricular mass was due to growth in posterior wall thickness rather than end-diastolic diameter. Diastolic function was significantly worse in patients with CKD, especially in more advanced stages.

Conclusion: Our study confirms that LVH is highly prevalent in patients with CKD; in this population, LVH is often inappropriate and characterized by the simultaneous increase of wall thicknesses and diameters.

© 2009 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.

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