Background and methods: A cohort study investigating medical costs associated with the combination of hypertension and diabetes was conducted. The participants included 4535 community-dwelling Japanese individuals, aged 40–69 years, who were classified into the following four categories: ‘Neither hypertension nor diabetes’, ‘Hypertension alone’, ‘Diabetes alone’ or ‘Both hypertension and diabetes’. Medical costs per person per month were compared among the four categories.
Results and conclusion: Of the study population, 1.3% had both hypertension and diabetes. During the 10-year follow-up period, participants with both hypertension and diabetes incurred higher medical costs, as compared with those without hypertension, diabetes or their combination, even after adjustment for other confounding factors.