Objective: To determine the qualitative and quantitative differences of blood pressure measured at home (home measurement) in the morning versus the evening.
Methods: Of 3744 participants, aged 20 years or older in the Ohasama population, more than 14 home measurements in the morning and in the evening, respectively, were obtained in each of 1207 individuals (881 untreated, 56.1 ± 11.4 years and 326 treated, 66.0 ± 9.2 years). A casual/screening measurement was also obtained in these individuals.
Results: The home measurements in the morning were significantly higher than those in the evening. The bivariate linear regression analysis demonstrated that the difference between diastolic home measurement in the morning and that in the evening increased with an increase in diastolic home measurements. The multiple step-wise linear regression analysis, however, demonstrated that male sex, the use of antihypertensive medication, and SD of home measurements in individuals (blood pressure variability), but not level of home measurements, were positively associated with the difference between home measurement in the morning and that in the evening. The SD of home measurement in the evening in individuals was significantly larger than that in the morning, and the SD in treated individuals was significantly larger than that in untreated individuals. The correlations between casual and home measurements were moderate in untreated individuals (r = 0.509–0.567) but poor in treated subjects (r = 0.223–0.384). The correlations between home systolic measurements in the morning and in the evening were very close in both treated and untreated subjects (r = 0.814–0.902). The correlations between the SD of home measurements in the morning and in the evening were moderate in both treated and untreated individuals (r = 0.585–0.657).
Conclusions: Qualitative and quantitative differences in home blood pressure measurement, due to the differential time of measurement, should be taken into consideration in clinical use of home blood pressure measurements.