PURPOSE: Recent guidelines from the Canadian Association of Cardiac Rehabilitation highlight the importance of addressing sleep disturbance among participants of cardiac rehabilitation (CR) programs. The primary objective of this study was to examine the relationship between depressive symptoms, health-related quality of life, and sleep disturbance in CR participants. The secondary objective was to estimate the prevalence of sleep disturbance among CR participants with and without depressive symptoms and explore demographic, medical, and psychological predictors of poor sleep quality.
METHODS: Cardiac rehabilitation participants (N = 259) were included in this study. Participants completed a standardized questionnaire package including demographic, health-related, and psychosocial measures. Physiologic and anthropometric measurements were taken at baseline. Descriptive statistics were calculated for all variables, and data were analyzed using multivariate logistic regression.
RESULTS: Poor sleep quality was reported by 52% of participants in the sample, and 47% of participants in the sample reported experiencing at least mild depressive symptoms. Poor sleep occurred more often in individuals with depressive symptoms, and after adjustment for medical factors and health-related quality of life, participants with symptoms of depression were still more likely to experience sleep disturbance than those without depressive symptoms (OR = 2.80; 95% CI, 1.37–5.77). An important gender difference emerged in the relationship between symptoms of depression and sleep disturbance.
CONCLUSION: Among participants of a CR program, disturbed sleep was strongly associated with depressive symptoms and decreased health-related quality of life. Results demonstrate the importance of sleep evaluation in CR programs.