Purpose: The objectives of this study were to evaluate the factors that contribute to aging in the lower eyelids and periorbital changes in Asians and to analyze the contribution of different anatomic factors before surgery.
Methods: We analyzed photographs and examination findings of 108 patients older than 80 years who had consultations for lower eyelid blepharoplasty. Structural changes were categorized to 7 anatomical categories, and each category was scored from 0 to 3 based on severity. The total point for each category for all patients was divided by the 456 total possible points and was considered a cumulative contribution score for that category. “A uniqueness score” for each patient was calculated as the maximum score in 1 category divided by the patient’s total score to reflect the percentage contribution of the patient’s most severe anatomic problem.
Results: A total of 108 cases (51 male and 57 female patients) were evaluated. The mean age was 57 ± 11 years (age range, 30–75 years). The cumulative contribution score for each category was as follows: orbital fat prolapse 33.8 (medial 15.3, central 11.7, lateral 6.8), skin laxity 22.3%, periorbital hollow 20.8 (tear trough 15.5, lateral orbital rim 5.3), septal confluence 9.5, orbicularis oculi muscle hypertrophy 3.6, triangular malar mound 3.4, and eyelid fluid 0.5. The average uniqueness score was 40.1%, and skin laxity and orbital fat prolapse had the highest average uniqueness score, but no single category played a dominant role in most patients. Medial orbital fat prolapse and skin laxity had the highest proportion of grade 3 scores of 9.5% and 6.7%, respectively. When the patients were grouped according to age, either younger than 50 years or older than 50 years, there was a prominent difference in orbital fat prolapse and skin laxity between the 2 groups.
Conclusions: Various anatomic factors were related to periorbital changes in Asian patients. Understanding of the complex factors that contribute to periorbital changes during the aging process may allow for adequate and customized surgery for each patient and help in prevention of postoperative complications.