Background: Orthognathic treatment of patients with juvenile idiopathic/rheumatoid arthritis is still controversial. Mandibular procedures may result in relapse and further condylar resorption and pain. Maxillary osteotomies and genioplasty may be effective for the correction of malocclusion and for aesthetics.
Patients and Methods: Five patients with juvenile idiopathic/rheumatoid arthritis with severe temporomandibular joint (TMJ) involvement underwent orthognathic surgery with a simultaneous Le Fort I osteotomy and advancement genioplasty. The age of the patients at the time of surgery ranged between 17 and 29 years (mean, 21.75 years). The patients were under follow-up for a minimum of 8 months after surgery, and measurements were performed using Dolphin 3D imaging.
Results: All 5 patients have an improved occlusion and improved facial aesthetics. The mean mandible rotation advancement was 5.6 mm (range, 4 to 7 mm). The mean posteroanterior face height ratio (S-Go/N-Me) after surgery was 63.9 (range, 62.9 to 65.8). No exacerbation of the juvenile rheumatoid arthritis was encountered as a result of the surgical procedure.
Conclusions: Le Fort I osteotomy with impaction and advancement genioplasty are effective procedures for occlusal and aesthetic correction of juvenile idiopathic/rheumatoid patients. Mandibular procedures may evoke further condylar resorption with pain and functional impairment of the TMJ.