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Fractures of the Pediatric Zygoma: A Review of the Clinical Trends, Management Strategies, and Outcomes Associated With Zygomatic Fractures in Children

DeFazio, Michael V. MD*; Fan, Kenneth L. MD*; Avashia, Yash J. MD; Danton, Gary H. MD, PhD*; Thaller, Seth R. MD, DMD*

doi: 10.1097/SCS.0b013e3182a24659
Original Articles

Fractures of the pediatric zygoma are uncommon and are often associated with high-impact trauma, as evidenced by the relatively increased prevalence of concomitant injuries observed in these patients. Despite advances in the prevention, diagnosis, and management of pediatric craniofacial injuries, data regarding zygomatic fractures in children remain poorly established. The diagnosis of zygomatic disruption is more difficult in children and requires the maintenance of a high index of suspicion on behalf of the surgeon. Early recognition and implementation of appropriate therapy are critical and depend on the acquisition of a thorough history and physical examination as well as the accurate interpretation of computed tomographic imaging. Options for management depend on fracture severity and can range from observation or closed reduction in nondisplaced or only minimally displaced fractures, to open reduction and internal fixation in fractures that are comminuted or severely displaced. Currently, there is a lack of level I evidence evaluating the long-term consequences associated with pediatric zygomatic fractures and their management. A review of the epidemiology, clinical characteristics, diagnosis, and management of pediatric zygomatic fractures is essential for optimizing function and aesthetic outcomes in children who sustain these injuries.

From the *Division of Plastic, Aesthetic, and Reconstructive Surgery, The DeWitt Daughtry Family Department of Surgery, and †Department of Radiology, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami Health System, Miami, Florida.

Received March 6, 2013.

Accepted for publication June 22, 2013.

Address correspondence and reprint requests to Seth R. Thaller MD, DMD, FACS, Division of Plastic, Aesthetic, and Reconstructive Surgery, The DeWitt Daughtry Family Department of Surgery University of Miami Health System, 1120 NW 14th St, 4th Floor, Miami, FL 33136; E-mail: SThaller@med.miami.edu

The authors report no conflicts of interest.

© 2013 by Mutaz B. Habal, MD.