Abstract: Although numerous biomaterials are used for maxillary sinus-lift surgery, the ideal material for such procedures has not yet been identified. Both heterologous and alloplastic bone substitutes have a solely osteoconductive effect and lack the osteoinductive properties of the bone morphogenetic proteins typical of autologous bone. Our group assessed a new alloplastic graft material, poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid/hydroxyapatite (PLGA/HA), implanted in a human model of maxillary sinus-lift surgery. For this prospective, random, double-blind trial, we used deproteinized bovine bone (DBB) as the comparison material. Radiographic bone vertical height and density were assessed at approximately 28 weeks after grafting using cone-beam computed tomography. The vertical dimension of the regenerated bone was equivalent between the 2 groups. The density of the bone regenerated using PLGA/HA was significantly lower than that obtained with DBB. Despite clinical assessments demonstrating that PLGA/HA has sufficient characteristics for use in sinus-lift surgery, DBB provided greater bone density and an equivalent vertical dimension of grafted bone. Further studies are needed to supplement the radiologic findings with histologic and micromorphometric examinations.