Abstract: Long-term anthropometric follow-up of cranial vault growth may considerably add valuable information to current literature focusing on treatment strategies for premature multiple-suture craniosynostosis. The aim of this paper was to compare postoperative growth patterns of nonsyndromic and syndromic multiple-suture craniosynostotic children with sex-matched and age-matched children from the typically developing population. Forty-one multiple-suture craniosynostotic patients (19 nonsyndromic and 22 syndromic) were included in this 5-year follow-up. Anthropological data of sex-matched and age-matched normal Swiss children served as a control. A standardized time protocol for anthropometric skull measurements (head circumference and cephalic index) was used. Data were converted into Z-scores for standardized intercenter comparison. All patients showed a marked benefit in cranial vault shape after open skull remodeling. Significant differences in long-term cranial vault growth pattern could be seen between the nonsyndromic and the syndromic groups compared to the control group.