Purpose: The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) on the osteogenic potential of a biphasic synthetic graft material composed of hydroxyapatite and beta-tricalcium phosphate (HA/β-TCP) in critical-size cranial defects in rabbits.
Materials and Methods: Three circular bicortical critical-size cranial defects were created in each of 18 rabbits. The first of the defects was grafted with autologous PRP and HA/β-TCP, the second was grafted with HA/β-TCP without PRP, and the third was left unfilled as a negative control. Animals were euthanized at 2, 4, and 6 weeks after surgery. Harvested tissue specimens were evaluated histologically and histomorphometrically. Several parameters associated with osteoclastic and osteoblastic activities were measured and calculated. The results were statistically analyzed using the 1-way analysis of variance statistical method.
Results: Histologic analysis of the samples showed bone tissue formation at all experimental sites including untreated control defects. A statistically significant difference in new bone formation between the defects treated with HA/β-TCP + PRP and defects treated with HA/β-TCP alone was not observed. Control untreated defects showed the greatest bone regeneration.
Conclusions: In this animal model, autologous PRP had no effect on bone healing in addition to a biphasic HA/β-TCP synthetic graft material after 2, 4, and 6 weeks of implantation.