Abstract: To prevent rejection of kidney transplants, patients must be kept in immunosuppressive therapy for a long time, which includes the use of drugs such as cyclosporine, azathioprine, cyclophosphamide, and prednisone. The action of these drugs reduces the general immune response of transplant patients and thus increases their susceptibility to infections. Moreover, these drugs increase the potential of developing lesions. Therefore, oral hygiene in kidney transplant recipients contributes to maintenance of the transplanted organ and its function. Thus, an investigation of oral lesions could be counted as a notable work. The aim of this study was to investigate oral lesions in a group of 21 kidney transplant patients under immunosuppressive therapy attended during a 1-year period in the Nephrology Department of the Federal University of Sergipe, Brazil. Data related to sex, age, etiology of renal disease, types of renal transplant, time elapsed after transplantation, immunosuppressive treatment, use of concomitant agents, and presence of oral lesions were obtained. All patients received a kidney transplant from a living donor, and the mean posttransplantation follow-up time was 31.6 months; 71.5% used triple immunosuppressive therapy with cyclosporine A, azathioprine, and prednisone. Ten patients were also treated with calcium-channel blockers. Of the 21 transplant patients, 17 (81%) presented oral lesions. Gingival overgrowth was the most common alteration, followed by candidiasis and superficial ulcers. One case of spindle cell carcinoma of the lower lip was observed. Oral cavity can harbor a variety of manifestations related to renal transplantation under immunosuppressive therapy.