Abstract: Dr. Bernard Sarnat is one of plastic surgery’s greatest laboratory investigators. His contributions to our understanding of modern craniofacial molecular biology are immense. His landmark studies continue to influence the way we approach and treat patients today. This article outlines his classic investigations of the craniofacial skeleton, with particular interest in lower face, midface, and upper face development; cranial suture and cranial base biology; and tooth and dental development. In this article, a brief summary of Dr. Sarnat’s investigations are followed by how these data have had an important clinical impact.