Journal of Craniofacial Surgery

Skip Navigation LinksHome > September 2011 - Volume 22 - Issue 5 > Comprehensive Evaluation of Three-Dimensional Philtral Morph...
Journal of Craniofacial Surgery:
doi: 10.1097/SCS.0b013e31822e5ebf
Original Articles

Comprehensive Evaluation of Three-Dimensional Philtral Morphology

Kishi, Naoko DDS, PhD*; Tanaka, Susumu DDS, PhD*†; Iida, Seiji DDS, PhD*‡; Kogo, Mikihiko DDS, PhD*

Collapse Box


This study was designed to evaluate detailed philtral morphology involving sex and racial differences and to clarify the objective parameters related to subjective judgments regarding the clarity of the philtrum. Fifty-five Japanese and 20 Mexican normal subjects aged 24 to 40 years were recruited, and three-dimensional facial data were acquired using a noncontacting optical surface scanner. The visual classification of the philtral column morphology in Japanese adults using facial photographs revealed that the predominant philtral column shape was different by sex. The three-dimensional anthropometric data showed significant sex differences, which were reflected in the more pronounced visual impression of the philtrum in men. A comparative study between Japanese and Mexican women also revealed certain racial differences. Furthermore, both the philtral depth and central angle of Cupid's bow were extracted as explanatory variables related to the subjective judgments for the clarity of the philtrum. These results suggest that the comprehensive evaluation of philtral morphologic features by three-dimensional analysis is a useful means of identifying the ideal parameters in philtral construction in cleft surgery.

© 2011 Mutaz B. Habal, MD

Follow Us!


Article Tools


Article Level Metrics

Search for Similar Articles
You may search for similar articles that contain these same keywords or you may modify the keyword list to augment your search.