The aim of this retrospective research was to establish the association between variables for the surgical treatment of zygomatic complex (ZC) fractures. In a 10-year period, 532 patients were examined for ZC fractures. The medical records of patients were analyzed to obtain information related to sociodemographic characteristics, trauma etiology, sign and symptoms of patients, and surgical or nonsurgical treatment. Statistical analysis was performed using χ2 test with statistical significance of P < 0.05. Most fractures were sustained by subjects between 21 and 40 years of age (55.8%), being principally men (80.1%), and 153 patients underwent surgery (28.8%). Surgical treatment of ZC fractures was statistically associated to the presence of other facial fractures (P = 0.004), alteration of occlusion (P = 0.0001; probably due to jaw fractures), presence of the comminuted fractures (P = 0.0002), and infraorbital nerve sensory disturbances (P = 0.003). A mixture of complex variables can be associated to surgical treatment; however, variables as comminuted fracture and alteration of occlusion were associated to surgical treatment indications.