Pediatric maxillofacial trauma is a challenge for surgeons. There are no completely defined protocols, and sometimes, the initial management could be complex. The aim of this research was to perform a retrospective study to analyze the pattern and treatment of maxillofacial fractures in pediatric and adolescent patients. We reviewed the clinical records of 2986 patients treated at the Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Division of Piracicaba Dental School between 1999 and 2008. Seven hundred fifty-seven patients were younger than 18 years and were divided into 3 groups according to age; the age and sex of the patients, etiology, fractures and associated injury, treatment, and complications were evaluated. Five hundred thirty boys (70.01%) and 227 girls (29.99%) were treated for injuries with major prevalence in adolescents. The most common injury causes were bicycle accidents (29.06%) and falls (28.40%). The mandible was the most fractured bone (44.8%); associated injuries were lacerations of the soft tissue and dental trauma. Surgical treatment was performed in 75 cases (30%) with minor complications (10% of surgical patients). We conclude that maxillofacial trauma in child is associated to fall and bicycle accidents; the mandible is more affected than other maxillofacial structures, and frequently, nonsurgical treatment is performed.