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Mandibular Alveolar Bony Defect Repair Using Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2-Expressing Autologous Mesenchymal Stem Cells

Chung, Vanessa Hui-Ying BEng*; Chen, Amy Yi-Ling DDS, MS†; Kwan, Chang-Chin MS*; Chen, Philip Kao-Ting MD‡; Chang, Sophia Chia-Ning MD, PhD§∥

Journal of Craniofacial Surgery: March 2011 - Volume 22 - Issue 2 - pp 450-454
doi: 10.1097/SCS.0b013e3182077de9
Original Articles

Background: Mandibular bone regeneration is stepped up by human recombinant bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) whose application is also related to limited cementum and periodontal ligament regeneration, local root resorption, and ankylosis. The alveolar bone grafting without traditional autologous bone grafts remains a challenge for plastic surgeons.

Methods: Bilateral mandibular alveolar and periodontal defects were created over the premolar areas in 9 mature male beagles. The defects were randomly assigned for either the adenovirus BMP-2 (advBMP-2) group with BMP-2-expressing mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) or the control with MSCs alone. The regenerated periodontal attachment apparatus was evaluated histologically, and the whole regenerated bone volume was scrutinized from three-dimensional computed tomography analysis.

Results: Periodontal apparatus regeneration was significantly better in the advBMP-2 group. New cementum and Sharpey fibers were observed on the denuded root surfaces in the advBMP-2 group, whereas incomplete healing with localized root surface resorption was noted in the control group. Eight weeks after implantation, the advBMP-2 group showed significant increase in bone regeneration than the control one.

Conclusions: Thus, the use of ex vivo BMP-2-engineered autologous MSCs boosted bone and periodontal apparatus regeneration in mandibular periodontal defects. This de novo approach might be suitable for clinical mandibular bone repair and periodontal apparatus repair.

From the *Department of Applied Chemistry, Providence University, Taichung, †Department of Dentistry, Chang-Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan; ‡Department of Plastic Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University College of Medicine; Taoyuan; and §Department of Plastic Surgery and ∥School of Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung,Taiwan.

Received July 17, 2010.

Accepted for publication August 1, 2010.

Address correspondence and reprint requests to Dr. Sophia Chia-Ning Chang, Department of Plastic Surgery, China Medical University Hospital, School of Medicine, China Medical University, No. 2, Yuh Der Rd, Taichung City 404, Taiwan; E-mail: scnchang@gmail.com

V.H.Y.C. and A.Y.L.C. contributed equally to this article.

This research was supported by the National Science Council Foundation, Taiwan (contract numbers NSC-95-2314-B-039-005 and NSC-96-2314-B-039-022-MY2).

The authors report no conflicts of interest.

© 2011 Mutaz B. Habal, MD