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Prognostic Value of Fibrinolytic Tests for Hospital Outcome in Patients with Acute Upper Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage

Gutiérrez, Ana M.D.; Sánchez-Payá, José M.D.; Marco, Pascual M.D.; Pérez-Mateo, Miguel M.D.

Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology: April 2001 - Volume 32 - Issue 4 - pp 315-318
Clinical Research

Goals: We assessed the predictive value of fibrinolytic tests for hospital outcome in a prospective study of 84 nonconsecutive patients with acute upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage.

Study: Six readily available parameters of activated fibrinolysis (fibrinogen, D-dimer, tissue plasminogen activator [TPA], plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 [PAI-1], TPA–PAI-1 complexes, and plasmin-alpha 2-antiplasmin complexes) were tested for association with hospital outcome. Patients were divided into the following three groups: patients who survived and did not require transfusion or surgery, those who survived without surgery but required transfusion, and those who required surgery or died.

Results: Patients with adverse outcome (surgery and/or death) showed significantly higher plasma levels of D-dimer than patients with favorable outcome (p = 0.01). Plasma concentrations of D-dimer >300 ng/mL showed a 20.5% positive predictive value of adverse outcome, with a relative risk of 7.5 (95% CI: 1–57%). Patients who required transfusion showed significantly higher plasma levels of TPA (p = 0.01). A positive correlation between endoscopic bleeding stigmata and D-dimer in the subgroup of patients without liver cirrhosis was found (p = 0.02); however, in the multivariate logistic regression analysis the concentration of D-dimer did not appear as an independent predictor of adverse outcome.

Conclusions: These findings are consistent with the role of increased local fibrinolysis in the digestive tract, particularly of D-dimer, in patients with upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage and adverse outcome. Accordingly, plasma fibrinolytic tests may constitute an appropriate prognostic marker in upper gastrointestinal bleeding.

From the Department of Internal Medicine (A.G., M.P-M.), Hospital General Universitario, Universidad Miguel Hernández; and the Department of Epidemiology (J.S-P.) and the Service of Hematology (P.M.), Hospital General Universitario de Alicante, Alicante, Spain.

Submitted March 6, 2000.

Accepted November 3, 2000.

Address correspondence and reprint requests to Dr. Miguel Pérez-Mateo, Department of Internal Medicine, Hospital General Universitario de Alicante, Maestro Alonso 109, E-03010 Alicante, Spain.

© 2001 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.