Abstract: Cystic renal neoplasms in adults are a heterogeneous group of tumors with characteristic histogenesis, pathological findings, and variable biological profiles. They include disparate entities that are either biologically benign (lymphangioma, cystic nephroma, and mixed epithelial and stromal tumor) or malignant (cystic renal cell carcinoma, multilocular cystic renal cell carcinoma, and primary renal synovial sarcoma). Renal cystic diseases are characterized by cystic changes of the kidneys due to hereditary, developmental, or acquired etiology. Cystic renal diseases such as acquired cystic kidney disease, von Hippel–Lindau disease, and tuberous sclerosis are associated with the development of a wide spectrum of benign and malignant renal neoplasms. Most cystic renal tumors and cystic disease–associated renal neoplasms show characteristic cross-sectional imaging findings that permit accurate diagnosis. In addition, cross-sectional imaging is pivotal in the follow-up and surveillance of adult cystic tumors of the kidney.