Objective: To describe computed tomographic (CT) findings of anthracofibrosis involving lung parenchyma.
Methods: Retrospectively reviewed CT findings of 34 patients with anthracofibrosis involving lung parenchyma, showing deposition of anthracotic pigmentation with focal fibrotic lesions on histologic examination.
Results: Types included nodules (41.2%), masses (55.9%), and fibrotic consolidation (2.9%). The mean size was 26.8 mm. The most common location was right upper lobe (n = 10). Satellite nodules were identified in 5 patients, calcification was identified in 11 patients, necrotic low attenuation was identified in 9 patients, and marginal spicule was identified in 26 patients (76.5%). The CT images showed airway manifestation of anthracofibrosis in 13 patients, nodal manifestation in 11 patients, and inactive tuberculosis in 14 patients. Initial radiologic diagnosis included tuberculosis (n = 10), lung cancer (n = 9), organized pneumonia (n = 7), nonspecific pulmonary nodule (n = 7), and anthracofibrosis (n = 1).
Conclusion: Anthracofibrosis involving lung parenchyma appears as a nodule, mass, or fibrotic consolidation, surrounded by long spicule. It may be the spectrum of bronchial anthracofibrosis involving small airway of lung parenchyma.