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Computed Tomography (CT) Bone Segmentation of an Ancient Egyptian Mummy A Comparison of Automated and Semiautomated Threshold and Dual-Energy Techniques

Friedman, Saul N. PhD*†‡; Nguyen, Ngan PhD§; Nelson, Andrew J. PhD; Granton, Patrick V. MSc†¶; MacDonald, D. Blair MD#; Hibbert, Rebecca MD#; Holdsworth, David W. PhD†‡**; Cunningham, Ian A. PhD†‡††‡‡

Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography:
doi: 10.1097/RCT.0b013e31826739f5
Image Processing and Technical Developments
Abstract

Abstract: Dual-energy computed tomography (CT) enables 3-dimensional,noninvasive, and nondestructive imaging with material separation.Dual-energy CT is generally used to segment hydrated tissues within the clinical context. We apply dual-energy CT to an ancient Egyptian mummy and present several techniques designed to separate bone from desiccated tissue and resin. Automated and semiautomated dual-energy CT techniques are compared to manual segmentation and thresholding-based techniques. Semiautomated techniques enable substantial reductions in operator time compared to manual segmentation.

Author Information

From the *Sackler School of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Ramat Aviv, Israel; †Imaging Research Laboratories, Robarts Research Institute, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada; ‡Department of Medical Biophysics, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada; §Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada; ∥Department of Anthropology, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada; ¶Department of Radiation Oncology (MAASTRO), GROW School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht, The Netherlands; #Department of Diagnostic Imaging, The Ottawa Hospital, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada; **Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada; ††Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, London Health Sciences Centre, London, Ontario, Canada; and ‡‡Lawson Research Institute, London, Ontario, Canada.

Received for publication April 5, 2012; accepted June 28, 2012.

Reprints: Saul Friedman, PhD, Sackler School of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Ramat Aviv 69978, Israel (e-mail: saul.friedman@gmail.com).

Funding: A.J.N. acknowledges financial support from a Faculty Scholar Grant and Department of Anthropology mummy outreach program of The University of Western Ontario.

The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare.

© 2012 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.