Objective: This study was designed to review the emerging role of fluorine 18 fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET) CT/computed tomography (PET/CT) in patients with mycobacteriosis.
Methods: A comprehensive literature search of published studies through October 2010 in PubMed/MEDLINE database regarding 18F-FDG-PET and PET/CT in patients with mycobacteriosis was performed.
Results: Ultimately, we identified 16 studies comprising a total of 220 patients with mycobacteriosis. Main findings of the included studies are presented.
Conclusions: (1) Mycobacteriosis commonly causes increased 18F-FDG uptake; therefore, positive 18F-FDG-PET results should be interpreted with caution in differentiating benign from malignant abnormalities. (2) 18F-FDG-PET and PET/CT are potentially useful in detecting sites of Mycobacterium infection. (3) Dual-phase 18F-FDG-PET is not useful for the differential diagnosis between malignant lesions and sites of Mycobacterium infection. (4) 18F-FDG-PET and PET/CT are useful for the evaluation of disease activity and in monitoring response to therapy in patients with mycobacteriosis. (5) Dual-tracer PET and PET/CT are potentially useful for presumptive diagnosis of solitary pulmonary nodules.