Skip Navigation LinksHome > January/February 2004 - Volume 28 - Issue 1 > Collateral Pathways in Thoracic Central Venous Obstruction:...
Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography:
Thoracic Imaging: Pictorial Essay

Collateral Pathways in Thoracic Central Venous Obstruction: Three-Dimensional Display Using Direct Spiral Computed Tomography Venography

Kim, Hyo-Cheol MD; Chung, Jin Wook MD; Yoon, Chang Jin MD; Lee, Whal MD; Jae, Hwan Jun MD; Kim, Young Il MD; Park, Jae Hyung MD

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We illustrate the spectrum of venous collateral pathways caused by the thoracic central venous obstruction with direct spiral computed tomography (CT) venography and 3-dimensional reconstruction images. Venous structures that can be demonstrated with CT venography include the jugular veins; the subclavian and brachiocephalic (innominate) veins; the internal and lateral thoracic veins; the superior and inferior venae cavae; the pericardiophrenic veins; the azygos, hemiazygos, and accessory hemiazygos veins; and the intercostal veins.

© 2004 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.



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