Collateral Pathways in Thoracic Central Venous Obstruction: Three-Dimensional Display Using Direct Spiral Computed Tomography VenographyKim, Hyo-Cheol MD; Chung, Jin Wook MD; Yoon, Chang Jin MD; Lee, Whal MD; Jae, Hwan Jun MD; Kim, Young Il MD; Park, Jae Hyung MDJournal of Computer Assisted Tomography: January/February 2004 - Volume 28 - Issue 1 - pp 24-33 Thoracic Imaging: Pictorial Essay Abstract Author Information We illustrate the spectrum of venous collateral pathways caused by the thoracic central venous obstruction with direct spiral computed tomography (CT) venography and 3-dimensional reconstruction images. Venous structures that can be demonstrated with CT venography include the jugular veins; the subclavian and brachiocephalic (innominate) veins; the internal and lateral thoracic veins; the superior and inferior venae cavae; the pericardiophrenic veins; the azygos, hemiazygos, and accessory hemiazygos veins; and the intercostal veins. From the Department of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University Medical Research Center, Seoul; and Clinical Research Institute, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, Korea. Reprints: Jin Wook Chung, MD, Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, # 28 Yongon-dong, Chongno-gu, Seoul, 110-744, Korea (e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org). © 2004 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.