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Long-Term Restoration of Anterior Shoulder Stability: A Retrospective Analysis of Arthroscopic Bankart Repair Versus Open Latarjet Procedure

Zimmermann, Stefan M. MD; Scheyerer, Max J. MD; Farshad, Mazda MD, MPH; Catanzaro, Sabrina RN; Rahm, Stefan MD; Gerber, Christian MD, FRCS

Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery - American Volume: 7 December 2016 - Volume 98 - Issue 23 - p 1954–1961
doi: 10.2106/JBJS.15.01398
Scientific Articles

Background: Various operative techniques are used for treating recurrent anterior shoulder instability, and good mid-term results have been reported. The purpose of this study was to compare shoulder stability after treatment with the 2 commonly performed procedures, the arthroscopic Bankart soft-tissue repair and the open coracoid transfer according to Latarjet.

Methods: A comparative, retrospective case-cohort analysis of 360 patients (364 shoulders) who had primary repair for recurrent anterior shoulder instability between 1998 and 2007 was performed. The minimum duration of follow-up was 6 years. Reoperations, overt recurrent instability (defined as recurrent dislocation or subluxation), apprehension, the subjective shoulder value (SSV), sports participation, and overall satisfaction were recorded.

Results: An open Latarjet procedure was performed in 93 shoulders, and an arthroscopic Bankart repair was done in 271 shoulders. Instability or apprehension persisted or recurred after 11% (10) of the 93 Latarjet procedures and after 41.7% (113) of the 271 arthroscopic Bankart procedures. Overt instability recurred after 3% of the Latarjet procedures and after 28.4% (77) of the Bankart procedures. In the Latarjet group, 3.2% of the patients were not satisfied with their result compared with 13.2% in the Bankart group (p = 0.007). Kaplan-Meier analysis of survivorship, with apprehension (p < 0.001), redislocation (p = 0.01), and operative revision (p < 0.001) as the end points, documented the substantial superiority of the Latarjet procedure and the decreasing effectiveness of the arthroscopic Bankart repair over time. Twenty percent of the first recurrences after arthroscopic Bankart occurred no earlier than 91 months postoperatively, as opposed to the rare recurrences after osseous reconstruction, which occurred in the early postoperative period, with only rare late failures.

Conclusions: In this retrospective cohort study, the arthroscopic Bankart procedure was inferior to the open Latarjet procedure for repair of recurrent anterior shoulder dislocation. The difference between the 2 procedures with respect to the quality of outcomes significantly increased with follow-up time.

Level of Evidence: Therapeutic Level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

1Balgrist University Hospital, Zürich, Switzerland

E-mail address for C. Gerber: christian.gerber@balgrist.ch

Copyright 2016 by The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Incorporated
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