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Prevalence of Total Hip and Knee Replacement in the United States

Maradit Kremers, Hilal MD, MSc; Larson, Dirk R. MS; Crowson, Cynthia S. MS; Kremers, Walter K. PhD; Washington, Raynard E. PhD, MPH; Steiner, Claudia A. MD, MPH; Jiranek, William A. MD; Berry, Daniel J. MD

Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery - American Volume: 2 September 2015 - Volume 97 - Issue 17 - p 1386–1397
doi: 10.2106/JBJS.N.01141
Scientific Articles

Background: Descriptive epidemiology of total joint replacement procedures is limited to annual procedure volumes (incidence). The prevalence of the growing number of individuals living with a total hip or total knee replacement is currently unknown. Our objective was to estimate the prevalence of total hip and total knee replacement in the United States.

Methods: Prevalence was estimated using the counting method by combining historical incidence data from the National Hospital Discharge Survey and the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) State Inpatient Databases from 1969 to 2010 with general population census and mortality counts. We accounted for relative differences in mortality rates between those who have had total hip or knee replacement and the general population.

Results: The 2010 prevalence of total hip and total knee replacement in the total U.S. population was 0.83% and 1.52%, respectively. Prevalence was higher among women than among men and increased with age, reaching 5.26% for total hip replacement and 10.38% for total knee replacement at eighty years. These estimates corresponded to 2.5 million individuals (1.4 million women and 1.1 million men) with total hip replacement and 4.7 million individuals (3.0 million women and 1.7 million men) with total knee replacement in 2010. Secular trends indicated a substantial rise in prevalence over time and a shift to younger ages.

Conclusions: Around 7 million Americans are living with a hip or knee replacement, and consequently, in most cases, are mobile, despite advanced arthritis. These numbers underscore the substantial public health impact of total hip and knee arthroplasties.

1Department of Health Sciences Research (H.M.K., D.R.L., C.S.C., and W.K.K.), Department of Orthopedic Surgery (H.M.K. and D.J.B.), and Division of Rheumatology (C.S.C.), Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street S.W., Rochester, MN 55905. E-mail address for H. Maradit Kremers:

2Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP), Center for Delivery, Organization and Markets (CDOM), Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), 540 Gaither Road, Rockville, MD 20850

3Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Virginia Commonwealth University (VCU) Medical Center, 9000 Stony Point Parkway, Richmond, VA 23235

Copyright 2015 by The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Incorporated
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